Introduction : Among health problems, obesity is now a

Introduction :

Among health problems, obesity is now a highly
insurmountable one that people have to confront. This disease is defined as
”abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health”.( by
World Health Organization ) . Overweight and obesity are among the easiest
medical conditions to recognize but most difficult to treat. At present, there
are many ways to find out whether a person has a healthy weight or not, but the
most widely used method is BMI standing for body mass index. Based on your
weight and height as well as your age, this method helps you calculate and give
a certain number then you will compare that to a table to identify what group
you belong to : healthy weight, overweight, obese or severely obese. This
disease appears in different ages, especially in children and teenagers. The
paper, based on secondary data, discusses the situation, causes, effects and
suggests some solutions to treat obesity. The research with the purpose to
raise people’s awareness on child and teen obesity and help readers can change
eating and working daily habits so as to have good health.

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Causes :

Obesity is a serious medical condition which threats to children
and adolescents. People in the obese category are above the normal weight for
their age and height. It also affects the psychology of the child, causing
feelings of fear, inferiority, afraid to interact with others. Even growing up
if you continue to maintain such weight can cause mental disorders. Obviously,
obesity is not just a matter of weight and appearance, it also has serious
consequences that directly affect their life. Therefore, it is essential to
find the factors that contribute to development of child and teen obesity and
then give measures and strategies to have a healthy lifestyle.

  First and foremost, dietary
factors play a role in the risk of obesity development. It includes fast food consumption, sugary
beverages, snack foods, and portion sizes. Today’s kids and teens are not just learning at school, but
they are also busy with outgoing activities, playing sports or going to work to
enhance some soft skills. Therefore, they do not have enough time to prepare a
full meal, that is the reason for fast food with cheap prices is a top
priority. This food has a
very attractive flavor, stimulates the taste makes them eat uncontrollably. However,
it contains very high calories. A
large fast food meal can contain about 2 200 calories, which at a burn rate of
85–100 calories per mile would require something near a full marathon to expend
(Anderson et al., 2003). The body will store the
extra energy as fat. That similarly happens when they regularly use sugary
drinks including soft drinks and fruit juice. Portion sizes tend to be
substantially larger, and this may confound the dietary methodologies that they
have. Frequently eating these foods will
increase the amount of total calorie intake leading to being obese rapidly.

  Additionally, lack of physical activity is
another important factor related to obesity. Many children and teenagers study at
school that involve sitting at a desk for most of the day ,so they become lazy
to move from one place to another place by walking or cycling even short
distance. Instead of going out, they always choose to stay at home and watch TV.
This brings two disadvantages. Not only do they not work to burn excess
calories in the body but also want to eat more when watching the advertisements
on television.

  Last but not least, genetic factors also promote child and
teen obesity. Many
researchers believe that genetics plays a strong role in determining whether an
individual has weight problems. Studies have found a correlation between parent
and child obesity, although such a correlation may be due either to genetic or
common environmental factors. In spite of some rare genetic conditions that can
provoke obesity, but there’s no
reason why most people can’t lose weight. Some people assert there’s no point trying to lose
weight because “it runs in my family” or “it’s in my
genes”. It may be true that certain genetic traits inherited from your
parents which may make losing weight more difficult, but it certainly doesn’t
make it impossible

1.       Situation :

       Levels of childhood obesity are
increasing at alarming rates in a great number of countries and poses serious
challenges to the whole society. As reported by World Health Organization, the
number of overweight or obese infants and young children (aged 0 to 5 years)
rose from 32 million globally in 1990 to 41 million in 2016. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in
children varies between regions and countries. Although rates may be plateauing
in some areas, absolutely common in low- and middle-income countries than in
high-income ones (30 %). Specifically, from 1990 to 2014, the global proportion
of overweight and obesity grew from 4.8% to 6.1%. Nonetheless, among them, in
undeveloped and developing countries this situation have doubled from 7.5
million to 15.5 million. What is noticeable is that nearly half of the figure
is in Asia (48%), 25% in Africa. It is estimated that if this trends continues,
by 2025 the number of overweight and obese children as well as  teenagers will reach 70 million. Without timely intervention, overweight
children are more likely to become obese in adulthood than are lean children. About one half of
overweight adolescents and over one-third of overweight children remain obese
as adults leading to risks of
premature onset of illnesses.