In this fast pace world of digital world which is based on sophisticated instruments like computer, telecommunication instruments, satellite has revolutionized the human life being. the effective use of IT in environmental pollution control and prevention has been proved to be most cost effective and reliable. A pollution cloud provides all necessary tools and analysis technologies on a demand to all whenever a particular nation or a human desires.
The Greenhouse effect is a natural undesirable phenomenon which causes unusual heating of earth’s surface and earth’s atmosphere. It is due to certain atmospheric gases like water vapor, CO2, methane, SO2 which are highly capable of absorbing the long wave radiations which are emitted from the earth’s surface. This causes greenhouse effect and without this effect life is nearly impossible on this earth as the average temperature on earth is nearly cool and chilly as -18 degree Celsius, rather than the present temperature that is 15 degree Celsius.
Global warming is caused when the earth’s surface heats up or the temperature rises rapidly from the average temperature. Now the phenomenon of global warming arises when greenhouse gases like CO2, NO, SO2, water vapor, and methane trap the light and heat energy from the sun in earth’s atmosphere, which highly rises the temperature. This causes a negative impact on human beings, animals and plants. This can even causes death in plants, animals and human being.
Pollution is the introduction of waste materials into this atmosphere making it unfit and impossible to bear and sustain life on earth. water pollution is all about introduction of toxic chemical, physical and biological wastes and matter into large water bodies such that it ruins the natural quality of life that sustains in it and feeds and consumes it.
Now a days Water pollution has become a major source of diseases in the world like the stats tell us that about 80% of diseases and 50% of child deaths are due to the consumption of contaminated water which was according to the reports oh WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Now Air pollution arises when a lot of chemicals or other harmful substances are added into the air in very high concentration which is harmful for animals, plants, humans, vegetation and materials. This has led to the massive destruction of the most protective shield of earth that is the ozone layer which is most essential to control the climate change.
Today in this modern era, Radioactive pollution creates severe health problems by the use of electronic products and appliances like TV, radio stations, microwave transmitters, radar satellites and mobile communication. This highly effects humans by causing cardiovascular problems, leukemia, insomnia and women’s menstrual disorder. This radioactive pollution is due to improper dumping of nuclear power plant wastes, uranium mining, laser rays etc. This pollution effects people by causing them ulcer, cancer of skin ,lungs, bone , cough, swelling and pain in bone joints and eye sight problems and many more.
Now soil pollution is completely due to industrialization and urbanization from the last few centuries and it causes high great health hazards to human beings and other life forms which needs to be solved crucially.
II CYBER INFRASTRUCTURE FRAMEWORK FOR POLLUTION
The most emerging fields in engineering is Information Technology. The biggest domains where cyber infrastructure has a wide impact factor is the pollution control systems such as designing effective pollution control systems for handling industrial waste management. In technical pollution control systems information processing, knowledge introspections and filtering are some of the great aspects which has to be designed properly with very good multi-agent systems which can be used in smart monitoring simulators and intelligent systems to do or to perform few tasks like alarming systems and data filtering. Now there are many agent based systems which has some agents who react to events, interact, define strategies and participate in the various activities of the system. Internet is giving a huge platform to this busting agent based systems and its use.
III NEED FOR POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGIES
Every country imposes strict rules for the pollution prevention and control but as the cost of treating and controlling pollutants whether they are solid, liquid and in gaseous state is very expensive and is also a non profitable investment. Apart from this investment , they have to invest on manpower and machinery. This has led to extremely difficult situation. Although treatment and prevention of waste can be more mesmerizing by converting the waste or rather we can say pollutants into some very useful products such that the waste will cease out to exist. Technologically this method is limiting due to the variation in source and nature of different pollutants.
Fig-1 Pollution control system
Fig-2 Environmental pollution control wide system
When environmental rules and regulations are being enforced then there is a huge debate over the exact and actual cost of the control equipments and their positive results to the environment and society. That’s why the actual cost of these equipments and the technology has to be carefully evaluated so that we can have a crystal clear and very precise picture of the various advantages to the environment and to check whether it is economically viable or not.
Technology has mainly transferred the affordability and economics of the better prevention and treatment technologies which calls for a great collaboration and a huge understanding between environmental and industrial consultancy. This completely based on the basis of technology sharing and on a prepaid basis. This will definitely bring all the environmentalists, socialists and industrialists on a common platform as pollution control and it’s abatement has now been a serious global issue. This collaboration has to be somehow in the way that the economic interests of industries, specialists and environmentalists are properly harnessed. This may require an extraordinary thinking which without any doubt will require a wide humanitarian and global perspective.
IV COST OF POLLUTION CONTROL
As we have discussed earlier that how pollution control and its measures requires a huge expense and investment which is seen by non-profit generating capability and capacity of various industrial organizations. The two essential categories of account in the economics of pollution control is first, the operation and maintenance cost and the capital cost. The initial capital cost comprises of the following mentioned cost sections and functions.
A. Total Capital Investment
1. Proper Permitting and Planning
2. Equipments selection, design and its engineering
3. Equipment process facility integration
4. Equipment construction, installation and fabrication
5. Training, monitoring, testing, start up and reporting
B. Maintenance and Operation
The total cost of pollution control strategies has to be based on computing to meet environmental regulations which is purely based on engineering and scientific principles. however this process is quite time consuming, includes cost factor and is economically stressful which is not necessary to be seen while preparing for the cost estimates.
Contradictory to this, the regulations are completely based on the best vital information which is available to assume or predict the effect of regulations on the regulated environment and society. in this it may include only equipment cost and it may discard all other associated costs that may form a major amount of the total cost. many times this data is extrapolated for various differing and independent facilities.
V IT AND POLLUTION CONTROL
Information technology plays an essential role in prevention and control of pollution. The various simulations and modeling of various pollutants can prove to be very useful for the designing and implementing of pollution control techniques and prevention projects. The IT based services provides us with many easy handling tools for the prediction, prevention and control of pollutants.
The most growing technology like the Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing are vitally used for effective environmental management. These technologies can sense and predict the various ongoing changes in the environment through satellites which uses the remote sensing technology systems. This information provided by the satellite can be used to prevent the loss of life , property and plants during some natural calamities like the earthquake, floods, volcanic eruptions etc, and it can be predicted in advance. this can lead to effective planning of disaster management programs and it reduces the effect of such calamities. These systems provide a big database for environmental issues like desertification, pollution control, biodiversity , renewable energy etc.
Today in the pollution control system ,the various industries are concerned about the various pollutants and the diversified sources of these pollutants which effects these industries badly. therefore the control and treatment process of these hazardous pollutants requires costly and well versed specialized equipments which are within the permissible limits. so the solution to this problem requires some specific solutions which can be costly. So the concept of cloud computing comes into play which is cost effective and can help in improvement of pollution on a global perspective. A computerized database can be maintained and information from it can be retrieved more accurately the ever before the computers. there are some work which are undertaken around the whole world to compile a large database on various environmental issues like pollution, wasteland, wildlife, forest cover etc.
Cloud computing is all about the applications, the various hardwares and softwares which are delivered as various services over the internet and this provides more advantage specially in the concentrated and dense industrial zones. whenever a nation requires cloud services then the pollution cloud provides pollution control services from cloud to the specified nation.
This will not only innovate management of pollution of environment and its analytical reliability but will also give a plithora opportunity to focus on improving and upgrading treatment technology. this will definitely give ample opportunities to various industries to lessen their capital investment on pollution issues and helps in making the treatment more cost effective and attractive. this is going to enhance the pace of information exchange between government and different industries agencies and hence to be more logical in making energy and various environmental policies and regulations. it will definitely exaggerate technically sound, reasonable ,cost effective laws to control techniques and some measures and regulation, consistency of the group operations through various sponsorships and technical transactions.
VI AN OVERVIEW OF POLLUTION CLOUD
Today various software companies are coming up with solutions for the complex problems so they are offering different solutions for the various real time problems for example pollution. these companies share their knowledge and give expertise solution through cloud. a pollution cloud is very essential and vital for a nation and it’s society for controlling and managing the severly polluted areas and develop eco friendly technologies to combat that. It also provides organizational and management activity to control pollution by cloud computing. it provides alarming services like in iphone which is a thin client for global warming and green house effects which will come in the near future through data mining.
Fig-3 Companies offering specialized cloud solutions
A. ARCHITECTURE OF POLLUTION CLOUD
In the given figure we can see that how a client works on browser based devices and cloud works as a back hand which has various distributed services like storage as infrastructure of service, which is given by various data centres. For the managing and hosting pollution cloud services which comprises of accounting, Dynamic SLA management, execution monitoring and management etc.
The pollution cloud app is completely running on SaaS layer which is completely a user level middleware as is shown in the figure. This layer provides all pollution cloud applications to the end user.
An intelligent data collector device is being installed which collects data from different pollution measuring equipments and devices which have been installed in various parts of the cities. if the pollution is found above the permissible limits then the data is collected and transferred to cloud by thin client, and at last all data is transferred to the pollution cloud in an online mode. the automatic pollution measuring are installed in various blacklisted areas which are point sources of pollution. even there is a pollution cloud to which hospital data can be uploaded using an online hospital management system.
Some warehouses are made for different distributed databases and data mining is done through prediction and some association algorithms. association helps to find the effect of green house gases and global warming. warehouse tells about the different diseases occurred due to pollution in reference to the last years data. results are checked from data mining from the last times effect and it is then calibrated for use in E-GOVERNANCE and pollution by interfacing the cloud for E-GOVERNANCE. Here there is no corruption because there is no involvement of any kind of manpower. here all the devices are automated so we get a actual result of soil, air, water, noise pollution and global warming. A pollution cloud provides a number of facilities to the industries and environmentalists for the storage of data, analysis and managing of data on demand basis and even it gives access to super computer by level computing power.
VII ADVANTAGES OF POLLUTION CLOUD
? A complete environmental pollution study and analysis without human interference.
? Actual and real analysis of monitoring and data reading without corruption.
? We can get all advanced tools for pollution analysis on demand whenever it is required.
? Future prediction of the environmental pollution coming and its control.
? Provides data mining for the analysis of pollution effects and associated diseases in a localized form.
? Provides NOC and E-GOVERNANCE to various industries.
? Locates area for the control projects of pollution sources.
? Pollution cloud helps in water quality control and river supervision.
? Resource planning is done effectively for short and long term projects using forecasting techniques.
? Pollution cloud protects the water resources.
? Pollution cloud helps in control of hazardous waste and helps in making policies.
In this paper we found out that how pollution is a huge and alarming problem and to control and manage it requires a lot of money, talent and developmental skills. Pollution solutions for various types of pollution is specific and it needs some unique requirements and the services needs are much more in the customized form so the various industries and organizations need some super solution and the best solution to their problem is cloud which can provide them various services on demand. Cloud computation is most proper and generic solution for these industries and organizations as it reduces the cost of controlling pollution and makes everything automated without any use of manpower which helps them to carry out their corporate social responsibility. In the coming years pollution cloud will play a major role because of its on demand services, scaling and working on mobile phones using thin client support. This is the most effective and Eco Friendly way to control pollution and make different Nations and its people live a good and a fresh and healthy life and will soon make the earth a POLLUTED FREE PLACE TO DWELL.