INTRODUCTIONInsomniais a sleep disorder which causes difficulty in falling asleep or stayingasleep. Having a good night sleep is an important part of all our lives itallows our body and mind to rest and our body to re-energize. Without getting aproper good night sleep we wake up tired and fatigued, our body and mind becomesstressed we feel irritated and low on energy, thereby, not allowing us tofunction or be at our best as we need our body to be.
It causes a depressedmood, stress and anxiety. Waking up tired and not being able to sleep at nightare general complaints found among College students. Students suffering from insomnia may have oneor more of these symptoms difficulty in falling asleep, waking up too early inthe morning, feeling tired after waking up, waking up during the night andhaving trouble going back to sleep.
Insomniaamong College students can be caused by several factors which include unhealthyeating habits, unhealthy sleeping habits, intake of excessive caffeine, use ofcellphones, laptops or any kinds of screens, stress, and lack of physical activityin their daily lives. Insomnia can be classified into two types primary andsecondary. Primary insomnia occurs if an individual has problems sleeping whichis not caused by some health condition or some problem. The secondary insomniaoccurs when an individual has sleeping problems because of other reasons such ahealth condition like some kind of disease or taking some form of medication.Collegestudents who are affected by insomnia mostly do not achieve high academicperformance and may even risk failure. This can affect the whole present andfuture of a student which they may regret their whole life. Students may not beaware of the fact that their unhealthy sleeping habits may be cause of theirpoor performance in college as students are sleep deprived and may feel drowsinessin the morning. Many think insomnia is the symptom of other mental disorderslike anxiety and depression.
Depression is now common among college students.Insomnia can increase clinical depression. Improving sleeping patterns andaddressing insomnia can increase the chances of improving depressive symptoms.An article published in the BBC News (“Insomnia damages relationships”, 2011)stressed that the lack of sleep needs to be treated as a major health issue. Itis important to identify the medical and psychological causes before decidingon the treatment for insomnia. It depends on the type of sleep problem youhave. Treatment of insomnia can be done by two methods which are medicationbased and non-medication based.
There are several different types of ways whichare used for treating insomnia. Many professionals do not recommend use ofmedication like sleeping pills for treating insomnia. Doctors and psychiatristslay more emphasis on treating the root of the problem causing insomnia like stress,anxiety, depression and work load rather than taking medication for treating it.Thepurpose of this report is to find out the prevalence of insomnia among collegestudents. It creates an understanding of insomnia as well as its causes. It explainsthe different types of insomnia found amongst students as well as the possibleavailable solutions. With an understanding of this, it is possible tounderstand the sleeping problems faced by students these days as well as thetreatments or solutions available for them.STATEMENTOF THE PROBLEMTo study the prevalenceof insomnia among college students.
OBJECTIVESOF THE STUDYThe objectives of thisstudy are· To review the types of insomnia foundamong college students. · To investigate the causes of insomniaamong students.· To study how insomnia among students canbe treated.
· To find out the prevalence of insomniaamong college students. INSOMNIADEFINEDInsomniacan be defined as the difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep. It is basicallythe inadequate sleep or poor quality of sleep. Insomnia cannot be defined bythe number of hours of sleep a person gets or how long it takes to fall asleepbut it is just a measure of satisfaction with sleep.
Individuals vary normallyin their need for and their satisfaction with sleep.TYPESOF INSOMNIAThere are two basictypes of insomnia primary insomnia and secondary insomnia. · Primaryinsomnia:Primaryinsomnia occurs when a person has sleep problems which are not caused by somehealth condition or any problem.· Secondaryinsomnia:Secondaryinsomnia occurs when a person has sleep problems because of something else,such as a health condition (like asthma, depression, arthritis, cancer, orheartburn); pain; medication they are taking; or a substance they are using(like alcohol).Insomniaalso varies in how long it lasts and how often it occurs.
It can be short-term(acute insomnia) or can last a long time (chronic insomnia). It can also comeand go, with periods of time when a person has no sleep problems. Acuteinsomnia can last from one night to a few weeks. Insomnia is called chronicwhen a person has insomnia at least three nights a week for a month or longer.· AcuteInsomniaAcuteinsomnia is brief and often happens because of life circumstances (for example,when you can’t fall asleep the night before an exam or after receivingstressful or bad news).
Many people may have experienced this type of passingsleep disruption, and it tends to resolve without any treatment. · ChronicinsomniaChronicinsomnia is disrupted sleep that occurs at least three nights per week andlasts at least three months. Chronic insomnia disorders can have many causes.Changes in the environment, unhealthy sleep habits, shift work, other clinicaldisorders, and certain medications could lead to a long-term pattern ofinsufficient sleep.
People with chronic insomnia may benefit from some form oftreatment to help them get back to healthy sleep patterns. Chronic insomnia canbe comorbid, meaning it is linked to another medical or psychiatric issue,although sometimes it’s difficult to understand this cause and effectrelationship. CAUSESOF INSOMNIAInsomniacan be caused by unhealthy sleep habits, specific substances, psychiatric andmedical conditions, and/or certain biological factors. Recently, researchershave begun to think about insomnia as a problem of your brain being unable tostop being awake because our brain has a sleep cycle and a wake cycle (when oneis turned on the other is turned off). Insomnia can be a problem with eitherpart of this cycle; it can be too much wake drive or too little sleep drive.It’s important to first understand what could be causing your sleepdifficulties.Commoncauses of insomnia include:· Mentalhealth disorders: Anxiety disorders, such aspost-traumatic stress disorder, may disrupt your sleep.
Awakening too early canbe a sign of depression. Insomnia often occurs with other mental healthdisorders as well. · Medications:Many prescription drugs can interfere with sleep, such as certainantidepressants and medications for asthma or blood pressure. Manyover-the-counter medications such as some pain medications, allergy and coldmedications, and weight-loss products contain caffeine and other stimulants thatcan disrupt sleep. · Medicalconditions: Conditions linked with insomnia includechronic pain, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, gastro esophageal refluxdisease (GERD), overactive thyroid, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’sdisease.
· Sleep-relateddisorders: Sleep apnea causes you to stop breathingperiodically throughout the night, interrupting your sleep. Restless legssyndrome causes unpleasant sensations in your legs and an almost irresistibledesire to move them, which may prevent you from falling asleep. · Caffeineand nicotine: Coffee, tea, cola and other caffeinateddrinks are stimulants.
Drinking them in the late afternoon or evening can keepyou from falling asleep at night. Nicotine in tobacco products is anotherstimulant that can interfere with sleep. Alcohol may help you fall asleep, butit prevents deeper stages of sleep and often causes awakening in the middle ofthe night. · Changesin sleep patterns: Sleep often becomes less restful as youage, so noise or other changes in your environment are more likely to wake you.With age, your internal clock often advances, so you get tired earlier in theevening and wake up earlier in the morning. But older people generally stillneed the same amount of sleep as younger people do.Changesin activity: You may be less physically or socially active. A lack of activitycan interfere with a good night’s sleep.
Also, the less active you are, themore likely you may be to take a daily nap, which can interfere with sleep atnight. Chronic insomniaChronicinsomnia is usually a result of stress, life events or habits that disruptsleep. Treating the underlying cause can resolve the insomnia, but sometimes itcan last for years.Common causes of chronic insomniainclude:· Stress:Concerns about work, school, health, finances or family can keep your mindactive at night, making it difficult to sleep. Stressful life events or trauma— such as the death or illness of a loved one, divorce, or a job loss — alsomay lead to insomnia. · Travelor work schedule:Yourcircadian rhythms act as an internal clock, guiding such things as yoursleep-wake cycle, metabolism and body temperature. Disrupting your body’scircadian rhythms can lead to insomnia. Causes include jet lag from travelingacross multiple time zones, working a late or early shift, or frequentlychanging shifts.
· Poorsleep habits: Poorsleep habits include an irregular bedtime schedule, naps, stimulatingactivities before bed, an uncomfortable sleep environment, and using your bedfor work, eating or watching TV. Computers, TVs, video games, smartphones orother screens just before bed can interfere with your sleep cycle. · Eatingtoo much late in the evening:Havinga light snack before bedtime is OK, but eating too much may cause you to feelphysically uncomfortable while lying down.
Many people also experienceheartburn, a backflow of acid and food from the stomach into the esophagusafter eating, which may keep you awake. SYMTOMSOF INSOMNIAInsomniaitself may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition. However, there aremany signs and symptoms that are associated with insomnia:· Difficulty falling asleep at night.
· Waking during the night.· Waking earlier than desired.· Still feeling tired after a night’ssleep.
· Daytime fatigue or sleepiness.· Irritability, depression, or anxiety.· Poor concentration and focus.· Being uncoordinated, an increase inerrors or accidents.· Tension headaches (feels like a tightband around head).
· Difficulty socializing.· Gastrointestinal symptoms.· Worrying about sleeping.Sleepdeprivation can be another symptom.
The sleep deprived person may wake up notfeeling fully awake and refreshed, and may have a sensation of tiredness andsleepiness throughout the day. Insomnia could be a result of behavioral pattern(for example, your nighttime routines do not cue your body for sleep, or yoursleep schedule is out of sync with your biological clock), or it could be linkto another medical or psychiatric issue that needs to be addressed. Theduration of insomnia is important. Doctors consider insomnia chronic if itoccurs at least three nights per week for three months or longer. Regardless ofits cause, if insomnia has become a regular occurrence, talking to your doctorabout treatment may be a good idea.
Youmay also want to consider whether and to what degree insomnia is affecting yourlife. If you feel fatigued or have low energy during the day and it gets in theway of your productivity and enjoyment of friends, family, or hobbies thatprobably means you could benefit from talking to your doctor. If you’ve triedon your own to make adjustments to your sleep routines and it hasn’t worked,you may want to enlist the help of a sleep specialist.