INTRODUCTION of other reasons such a health condition like


is a sleep disorder which causes difficulty in falling asleep or staying
asleep. Having a good night sleep is an important part of all our lives it
allows our body and mind to rest and our body to re-energize. Without getting a
proper good night sleep we wake up tired and fatigued, our body and mind becomes
stressed we feel irritated and low on energy, thereby, not allowing us to
function or be at our best as we need our body to be. It causes a depressed
mood, stress and anxiety. Waking up tired and not being able to sleep at night
are general complaints found among College students.  Students suffering from insomnia may have one
or more of these symptoms difficulty in falling asleep, waking up too early in
the morning, feeling tired after waking up, waking up during the night and
having trouble going back to sleep.

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among College students can be caused by several factors which include unhealthy
eating habits, unhealthy sleeping habits, intake of excessive caffeine, use of
cellphones, laptops or any kinds of screens, stress, and lack of physical activity
in their daily lives. Insomnia can be classified into two types primary and
secondary. Primary insomnia occurs if an individual has problems sleeping which
is not caused by some health condition or some problem. The secondary insomnia
occurs when an individual has sleeping problems because of other reasons such a
health condition like some kind of disease or taking some form of medication.

students who are affected by insomnia mostly do not achieve high academic
performance and may even risk failure. This can affect the whole present and
future of a student which they may regret their whole life. Students may not be
aware of the fact that their unhealthy sleeping habits may be cause of their
poor performance in college as students are sleep deprived and may feel drowsiness
in the morning. Many think insomnia is the symptom of other mental disorders
like anxiety and depression. Depression is now common among college students.
Insomnia can increase clinical depression. Improving sleeping patterns and
addressing insomnia can increase the chances of improving depressive symptoms.
An article published in the BBC News (“Insomnia damages relationships”, 2011)
stressed that the lack of sleep needs to be treated as a major health issue.

is important to identify the medical and psychological causes before deciding
on the treatment for insomnia. It depends on the type of sleep problem you
have. Treatment of insomnia can be done by two methods which are medication
based and non-medication based. There are several different types of ways which
are used for treating insomnia. Many professionals do not recommend use of
medication like sleeping pills for treating insomnia. Doctors and psychiatrists
lay more emphasis on treating the root of the problem causing insomnia like stress,
anxiety, depression and work load rather than taking medication for treating it.

purpose of this report is to find out the prevalence of insomnia among college
students. It creates an understanding of insomnia as well as its causes. It explains
the different types of insomnia found amongst students as well as the possible
available solutions. With an understanding of this, it is possible to
understand the sleeping problems faced by students these days as well as the
treatments or solutions available for them.


To study the prevalence
of insomnia among college students.


The objectives of this
study are

To review the types of insomnia found
among college students.

To investigate the causes of insomnia
among students.

To study how insomnia among students can
be treated.

To find out the prevalence of insomnia
among college students.









can be defined as the difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep. It is basically
the inadequate sleep or poor quality of sleep. Insomnia cannot be defined by
the number of hours of sleep a person gets or how long it takes to fall asleep
but it is just a measure of satisfaction with sleep. Individuals vary normally
in their need for and their satisfaction with sleep.


There are two basic
types of insomnia primary insomnia and secondary insomnia.


insomnia occurs when a person has sleep problems which are not caused by some
health condition or any problem.


insomnia occurs when a person has sleep problems because of something else,
such as a health condition (like asthma, depression, arthritis, cancer, or
heartburn); pain; medication they are taking; or a substance they are using
(like alcohol).

also varies in how long it lasts and how often it occurs. It can be short-term
(acute insomnia) or can last a long time (chronic insomnia). It can also come
and go, with periods of time when a person has no sleep problems. Acute
insomnia can last from one night to a few weeks. Insomnia is called chronic
when a person has insomnia at least three nights a week for a month or longer.


insomnia is brief and often happens because of life circumstances (for example,
when you can’t fall asleep the night before an exam or after receiving
stressful or bad news). Many people may have experienced this type of passing
sleep disruption, and it tends to resolve without any treatment.



insomnia is disrupted sleep that occurs at least three nights per week and
lasts at least three months. Chronic insomnia disorders can have many causes.
Changes in the environment, unhealthy sleep habits, shift work, other clinical
disorders, and certain medications could lead to a long-term pattern of
insufficient sleep. People with chronic insomnia may benefit from some form of
treatment to help them get back to healthy sleep patterns. Chronic insomnia can
be comorbid, meaning it is linked to another medical or psychiatric issue,
although sometimes it’s difficult to understand this cause and effect

















can be caused by unhealthy sleep habits, specific substances, psychiatric and
medical conditions, and/or certain biological factors. Recently, researchers
have begun to think about insomnia as a problem of your brain being unable to
stop being awake because our brain has a sleep cycle and a wake cycle (when one
is turned on the other is turned off). Insomnia can be a problem with either
part of this cycle; it can be too much wake drive or too little sleep drive.
It’s important to first understand what could be causing your sleep

causes of insomnia include:

health disorders: Anxiety disorders, such as
post-traumatic stress disorder, may disrupt your sleep. Awakening too early can
be a sign of depression. Insomnia often occurs with other mental health
disorders as well.


Many prescription drugs can interfere with sleep, such as certain
antidepressants and medications for asthma or blood pressure. Many
over-the-counter medications such as some pain medications, allergy and cold
medications, and weight-loss products contain caffeine and other stimulants that
can disrupt sleep.


conditions: Conditions linked with insomnia include
chronic pain, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, gastro esophageal reflux
disease (GERD), overactive thyroid, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s


disorders: Sleep apnea causes you to stop breathing
periodically throughout the night, interrupting your sleep. Restless legs
syndrome causes unpleasant sensations in your legs and an almost irresistible
desire to move them, which may prevent you from falling asleep.


and nicotine: Coffee, tea, cola and other caffeinated
drinks are stimulants. Drinking them in the late afternoon or evening can keep
you from falling asleep at night. Nicotine in tobacco products is another
stimulant that can interfere with sleep. Alcohol may help you fall asleep, but
it prevents deeper stages of sleep and often causes awakening in the middle of
the night.


in sleep patterns: Sleep often becomes less restful as you
age, so noise or other changes in your environment are more likely to wake you.
With age, your internal clock often advances, so you get tired earlier in the
evening and wake up earlier in the morning. But older people generally still
need the same amount of sleep as younger people do.

in activity: You may be less physically or socially active. A lack of activity
can interfere with a good night’s sleep. Also, the less active you are, the
more likely you may be to take a daily nap, which can interfere with sleep at


Chronic insomnia

insomnia is usually a result of stress, life events or habits that disrupt
sleep. Treating the underlying cause can resolve the insomnia, but sometimes it
can last for years.

Common causes of chronic insomnia

Concerns about work, school, health, finances or family can keep your mind
active at night, making it difficult to sleep. Stressful life events or trauma
— such as the death or illness of a loved one, divorce, or a job loss — also
may lead to insomnia.


or work schedule:

circadian rhythms act as an internal clock, guiding such things as your
sleep-wake cycle, metabolism and body temperature. Disrupting your body’s
circadian rhythms can lead to insomnia. Causes include jet lag from traveling
across multiple time zones, working a late or early shift, or frequently
changing shifts.

sleep habits:

sleep habits include an irregular bedtime schedule, naps, stimulating
activities before bed, an uncomfortable sleep environment, and using your bed
for work, eating or watching TV. Computers, TVs, video games, smartphones or
other screens just before bed can interfere with your sleep cycle.


too much late in the evening:

a light snack before bedtime is OK, but eating too much may cause you to feel
physically uncomfortable while lying down. Many people also experience
heartburn, a backflow of acid and food from the stomach into the esophagus
after eating, which may keep you awake.




























itself may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition. However, there are
many signs and symptoms that are associated with insomnia:

Difficulty falling asleep at night.

Waking during the night.

Waking earlier than desired.

Still feeling tired after a night’s

Daytime fatigue or sleepiness.

Irritability, depression, or anxiety.

Poor concentration and focus.

Being uncoordinated, an increase in
errors or accidents.

Tension headaches (feels like a tight
band around head).

Difficulty socializing.

Gastrointestinal symptoms.

Worrying about sleeping.

deprivation can be another symptom. The sleep deprived person may wake up not
feeling fully awake and refreshed, and may have a sensation of tiredness and
sleepiness throughout the day. Insomnia could be a result of behavioral pattern
(for example, your nighttime routines do not cue your body for sleep, or your
sleep schedule is out of sync with your biological clock), or it could be link
to another medical or psychiatric issue that needs to be addressed. The
duration of insomnia is important. Doctors consider insomnia chronic if it
occurs at least three nights per week for three months or longer. Regardless of
its cause, if insomnia has become a regular occurrence, talking to your doctor
about treatment may be a good idea.

may also want to consider whether and to what degree insomnia is affecting your
life. If you feel fatigued or have low energy during the day and it gets in the
way of your productivity and enjoyment of friends, family, or hobbies that
probably means you could benefit from talking to your doctor. If you’ve tried
on your own to make adjustments to your sleep routines and it hasn’t worked,
you may want to enlist the help of a sleep specialist.