Introduction restore and to take care for migration in


Cloud database is a software that allows users to manipulate
with data stored in clouds without the need to install any hardware or
software. The database software is maintained by the service provider while the
users use that software and they pay just for the services they consume. There
are too many reasons why cloud databases are widespread, starting from low
costs, high availability, reduced infrastructure configuration and management.
Data processing is very important and vital issue     for every organization. Organizations need to install, manage
and maintain database management systems to please their needs. For all of this
job they need to buy needed hardware, deploy database products, have
connectivity and hire professional people to manage the system. Every company
who wants to have their own database management system also needs to have
database backup, database restore and to take care for migration in some cases
from one version of database into next one without impact in availability.
Based on the fact that every company who needs database management system is
ready to pay an amount of money for completing of all those tasks, some
companies saw this big opportunity and started with offering database
management like a ready service. In case they need a database service they
simply can choose company based on the performance they offer and the price
they have for pleasing they needs. Having private database management system is
not efficient in most of the cases for organizations instead of taking them
ready for an amount of money. The database service provider provides to their
consumers a seamless process of creating, storing, managing, accessing of their
databases. Every database service provider in present times is trying to give
more simply process to their users and more security for their stored data.
Service provider takes responsibility for their service they provide to their
costumers. They created frameworks for controlling procedures to minimize risk
for accessing their data, because it can happen unauthorized modification.
Database management companies understand the importance of data stored from
their users so their goal is always to improve their service in the aspect of
security and performance. We have noticed that we have a lot of choice when we
want to find a company that provides to us database management system, but
choosing the best offer always it should be based on the security they offer to

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Related work

There are a big amount of research papers and books, which
explore database clouds and security on them. I have made a selection of them
based on the time they are published, and I will provide a short summary of
each below.

Database – Database as a service  –
Department of Computing, Macquarie University Sydney

In this
research paper authors started explaining about cloud database service offered
from service providers. Many companies have started using cloud computing and
accessing their data from cloud database. Based on a study in 2011 from
Mimecast Survey 36 percent of the companies are running applications from cloud
service. They explain that Database as a service will be new dimension in IT
world in terms of faster performance and cheaper cost. Recovering database can
be much easier in case of happening a disaster in the database. Cloud database
in this paper is described like complex structure, because service provider
holds the data in different data centers that are located in different
locations. Users can have access to database services via computer through
internet , or mobile phone user can access the cloud database via 3G or 4G
services. In detailed way is described the way the user has access to database
service, also the process of the nodes and node splitting. Distributed queries
are explained also because every large database for handling in the most
effective way with data needs to use this system. Choosing the best database as
a service is also evaluated from analyzing some of the characteristics that one
service provider offers to costumers. They also say that choosing best service
provider is based on: data sizing, portability, transaction capabilities,
configurability, accessibility, certification and accreditation, data
integrity, security and storage location. They listed also some advantages and
disadvantages of using cloud databases as a service, and in their conclusion
they say that advantages are more than disadvantages that means that this trend
will grow with more benefits for companies that use it, than the other ones
that decide to make their own database management systems.1


Scalability, Elasticity, and Autonomy in the Cloud – Department of Computer
Science University of California at Santa Barbara

This paper
starts with explaining the importance of cloud computing for deploying
successful web applications. They define cloud like technology trend for
hosting user applications, services and data in the network core. Database
management system in cloud is being more and more widespread because of many features
of DBMS that are overall functionality, consistency, performance and
reliability . A highlighted importance is given to scalability. They describe
scalability of database like ability to handle growing amounts of work when
additional resources are added, in the most cases hardware. Scaling can happen
in two ways, vertically and horizontally. To scale vertically means adding
resources to a single node, for example involving addition processors or memory
to a single computer. To scale horizontally in DBMS means to add more nodes to
a system, example adding a new computer to a distributed software application.
Elasticity from this paper is defined as a model pay per use, and every
companies goal is to optimize the systems operating cost. To reduce operating
cost of a DBMS autonomy is needed in the administration of such of systems.
Conclusion of this research paper is that they gave an overview of challenges
in cloud computing infrastructure such as dealing with large scale operations,
lightweight elasticity, and autonomic control to minimize the operating


Security and Privacy in Cloud Computing – Yunchuan Sun, Junsheng Zhang,
Yongping Xiong, and Guanyu Zhu


Authors in
this paper give review for ways how to improve privacy protection and security
of data manipulated throw cloud computing. They start from defining cloud
computing as an environment  where
applications and resources are delivered over the Internet as a services. The
most important for users to feel safe with using cloud computing is that they
should believe in trustworthy environment. To make one cloud service
trustworthy providers should improve data integrity, data confidentiality, data
availability, and data privacy. In data integrity part authors say that cloud
service providers should protect data from unauthorized deletion, modification,
or fabrication. After that authentication and access control strategies are
used for achieving data confidentiality, where encryption has the key important
place in this field. Data availability means for example when an accident
happens to a hard disk and we have a damage, every company should have ways or
techniques how to recover their costumers data as fast as possible. Privacy in
the clouds is defined like a state when users visit the sensitive data, and
service provider should prevent unauthorized users from having access to
costumers data.3


and privacy of sensitive data in cloud computing: a survey of recent
developments – Ali Gholami and Erwin Laure


of this paper starts with an example of cloud database including healthcare. As
we know this kind of data is very important, cloud platforms that holds this
kind of data are required to enable organizational safeguards to prevent
breakdowns of database management system because this kind of event will have
very costly damages. Authors analyze several key concepts that are very used in
cloud computing such as types of cloud services, virtualization mechanisms and
“container” technologies. Explaining about security issues in cloud computing
starts with giving a summary for issues such as multi tenancy, loss of control
and, loss of trust chain in clouds. Best definition for privacy is as follow “Privacy is the claim of individuals, groups,
or institutions to determine for themselves how, when, and what extent
information about them is communicated to others”4. Authors also give a
review for security solutions such as authentication and authorization,
identity and access management, confidentiality, integrity and availability. In
their conclusion authors describe their finished job that with this paper they
tried to describe some of the most important provider activities, and they give
a big importance to security and privacy of users in cloud computing.5





Analyze of Amazon web services and


On the
Amazon web services the highest priority is cloud security. Costumers of AWS
pay one low amount of the money for the service they need and with that they
get a very secure environment for manipulating with their data stored in the
cloud. This company includes most important security capabilities that one
cloud service provider should have: network firewalls are very important capabilities
that let costumers have secure access to their instances and applications,
encryption using Transport Layer Security, private or dedicated connectivity
options. Amazon web services has a security certification called SOC1 which is
a security report that guarantees costumers that their stored data is secured
from unauthorized access. Also in web services we have implemented the AES 256
standard which enables encryption and tells to us that nobody can have a view
from our stored data in the cloud.  Amazon virtual private cloud allows costumers
to create private subnet to have more security and more control in their
processes. In their company Amazon has a lot of security preventions, from
electronic devices for detection threats, to reviewing and approving a person
access to database by authorized people. The most important part of their task
in Amazon is to create secure enough 
environments because their job is supervised from third party auditors
with a deep analyze to confirm if they are following established rules to still
keep the gained already certifications.6


also has a goal to keep secured costumers data stored in their servers, they
are based on the fact that databases are mostly used for storing sensitive data
assets. They secure their costumers in the way they have a strongly security
evaluation of their job. This company has some offers for managing sensitive
information, they can encrypt Specific Information or Transparent Data. The
second model is when we want to encrypt databases both on the hard drive or in
backup. One of the best methods of encryption that this company have is Full
Disk Encryption, which protects each file and the temporary storage that can
contain parts of this files.7




In the
description above I explained cloud computing as a service and more exactly
database as a web service. We analyzed cloud databases as service which allows
users to store and maintain their data in clouds without having installed
hardware. Users can access their stored data from simple pc via internet, they
can manipulate with them and all that they can have it in exchange of small
amount money. This way of accessing data is much easier and secure than buying
hardware and trying to maintain their own database. At the end of our research
paper we already know to many advantages of using cloud databases, and also we
analyzed two big web services such as Amazon web services and Enterprisedb.