Introduction and objectives, thesis significance, thesis model

Introduction This chapter provides a holistic background of this thesis; this thesis aims to examine the antecedents of students’ behavioural intention to use animation and storytelling in Jordanian universities. It also aims to measure the relationship between performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic variables and utilitarian variables on behavioural intention to use animation and storytelling. In addition, the thesis examines the effect of behavioural intention and actual use of animation and storytelling in the learning process in Jordanian universities. Chapter one presents an overview of this thesis background, importance, problem, followed by the aim and objectives, thesis significance, thesis model and hypotheses, methodology and finally the thesis structure is presented.Thesis Background Theatrical cartoons appeared on television as early as 1930 and animated cartoons emerged by the early 1940s because of production costs.

Animation creates an environment similar to an actual setting with the help of special techniques, reducing the cost significantly. However, real videos can be a huge cost as it requires real actors/actresses, setting, production, editing etc. In animation, no need to make everything from the scratch, you can even show things that are unrealistic! In this period, animation was frequently seen on TV as a non-commercial, experiment medium. By that time, producers were trying to exercise a great deal of creative control on the animated genre (Cohen1992). Gaining attention is an essential first step in breaking through Web advertising clutter to facilitate a more detailed processing of an advertisement. Animation is one of the unique features of banner advertising, carrying moving images and graphics to enhance the presentation of persuasive ad messages (Ellsworth ; Ellsworth, 1995). The increased use of banner advertising on the Web is no surprise, and with it comes the increased use of animation in banner ads (Sundar, Kalyanaraman, Martin, ; Wagner, 2001). Most Web site designers and advertisers seem to believe that fast animation in online banner ads can cut through the clutter of Web advertisements and eventually increase advertising effectiveness (Hughes, 2001).

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Storytelling has been the characteristics of human history (Patterson and Brown 2005). These days, storytelling has been widely used as a means for content marketing of brands in many countries (Pulizzi 2012).  It is much more attractive when a story is told using animation effects. They can also reflect the personality of your brand better. Doing it in an artistic way can actually display your businesses’ creativity and enable your potential customers to form a better connection with you and your services. No matter if it’s a short 30-second clip or a full-length feature movie, everyone loves a good story.

When it comes to telling a story, you want to create a video that your prospects can relate too. Expressive stories should convey your message to get awareness and attention for your prospects. Animation is related to cross-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary art and craft, embracing drawing, sculpture, model making, performance, dance, computer science, social science and much more (Berney ; Betrancourt, 2016; Luzon ; Leton, 2015).

Storytelling is defined by the National Storytelling Network (2017) as “the interactive art of using words and actions to reveal the elements and images of a story while encouraging the listener’s imagination”. Technological development enables education systems to create and combine enormous amounts of different learning materials. However, there is still a large gap between advanced technology and our understanding of how humans can best learn with this technology (Chandler, 2004). Recently educational animations have become an increasingly common feature of learning environments that are supported by technology. The involvement to the use of new technology like animation and storytelling within lessons is extremely important in this digital age.

Indeed, over 8 billion videos were watched daily via social networking sites like Facebook in 2016, meaning that 10 million hours were spent by individuals in this use of interactive animation and storytelling and that this should be seen as a logical avenue by which to promote activities concerned with any kind of learning, and/or business (TechCrunch, 2016). There are many factors influencing students’ intention to use technology in their future lessons. Some of these factors are performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions (Tosuntas, Karadag, & Orhan, 2015; Venkatesh et al., 2003). Multimedia learning resources and educational websites make extensive use of such dynamic graphics with the aim of supporting students’ comprehension of complex materials, especially those that deal with scientific phenomena and systems (Ainsworth, 2006). Animations may serve various purposes (Hegarty, Kriz, ; Cate, 2003). In multimedia contexts, learning with dynamic visualizations like animations has become a topic of major interest in the last decade (cf.

Höffler, Schmeck, ; Opfermann, 2013; Lowe ; Schnotz, 2014). However limited research has been conducted in less developed countries, especially Jordanian universities. Importance of Animation and storytelling Schnotz and Lowe (2008, p. 304) define animation ”…as a pictorial display that changes its structure or other properties over time and which triggers the perception of a continuous change”. In computerised learning environments, animations are frequently employed in order to enhance students’ understanding of both complex processes and abstract concepts that change in time and space (Ainsworth & VanLabeke, 2004). Animations, not only offer various opportunities for learning (Be´trancourt, 2005), they also place specific demands on the students’ learning processes. Animations may serve various purposes (Hegarty, Kriz, ; Cate, 2003). They can depict not only visible phenomena but also those that are invisible, such as changes in pressure or temperature as shown in an animated weather map (Lowe, 2004).

Animations can also represent more abstract types of content, such as statistical concepts (Bodemer, Ploetzner, Feuerlein, ; Spada, 2004), problem solving procedures (Wouters, Paas, ; van Merriënboer, 2009), computer algorithms (Narayanan ; Hegarty, 2002), or prey and predator relationships (Ainsworth ; Van Labeke, 2004). In the meta-analysis conducted by Höffler and Leutner (2007), an overall-effect of animations was found among dozens of reviewed studies. Others studies also support animation’s effectiveness on learning (e.g., Arguel & Jamet, 2009; Ayres, Marcus, Chan, & Qian, 2009; Catrambone & Seay, 2002; Large, Beheshti, Breuleux, & Renaud, 1996; Münzer, Seufert, & Brünken, 2009; Wong et al.

, 2009). It is of note that a positive learning effect was found for animations in a wide range of domains including science (physics and chemistry concepts), engineering (mechanical systems), and daily life skills (paper folding and knot making). Including storytelling in the learning process reinforce and enhance students feel when they are using that process as an educational tool. Collaborative storytelling prompt students to communicate ideas, transfer knowledge, and make decisions (Wang, Moore, Wedman, et al., 2003) since story tellers have to organize, evaluate and transform life experience in their own voices (Pirrie, 1999). Almost as important as storytelling are the follow-up activities after storytelling, such as story recall.

Story recall allows students to revisit the tale and refine their understanding. It helps students develop concepts about words, print, and books as well as assessing students current language levels (Morrow, 2001).Study Problem Educational animation and storytelling are one of the most entertainment formats to deliver any educational messages. Educational animation and storytelling has become an increasingly ubiquitous and common feature of learning environments that are supported by technology.

However, most research has been devoted to the developed countries. Moreover, there is limited research in use of animation and storytelling that improves students’ learning outcomes in less developed countries. Therefore, this thesis investigates whether there are any differences in achievements among students who use animation and storytelling, the research also examines whether animation and storytelling can enhance, facilitate and unleash student learning process. Based on the problems mentioned above, the idea is to study the antecedents of students’ behavioural intention to use animation and storytelling in Jordanian universities by applying the extended UTAUT2 model as a guiding principle. In addition, there limited or non-existing study that examines the extended UTAUT2 model of animation and storytelling in less developed countries. This thesis will also provide new perspectives on the findings of earlier studies. The proposed model could assist Jordanian universities managements to determine influences to acceptance of the new technology within students’ lessons. According to the above thesis problem, the thesis questions are as follows:How does performance expectancy affect the behavioural intention of students to actual use of animation and storytelling in the classroom?How does effort expectancy affect the behavioural intention of students to actual use of animation and storytelling in the classroom?How does social influence affect behavioural intention of students to actual use of animation and storytelling students’?How does facilitating condition affect behavioural intention of students to actual use of animation and storytelling students’?How does a hedonic motivation affect behavioural intention of students to actual use of animation and storytelling students’? How does a utilitarian variable affect behavioural intention of students to actual use of animation and storytelling students’? Thesis Aims and Objectives This study aims to examine the antecedents of students’ behavioural intention to use animation and storytelling in Jordanian universities.

Mainly the study aims to achieve the following objectives:To examine the relationship between performance expectancy and students’ behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling.To examine the relationship between effort expectancy and students’ behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling.To examine the relationship between social influence and students’ behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling.To examine the relationship between facilitating condition and students’ behavioural intention to actual use animation and storytelling.

To examine the relationship between hedonic motivation and students’ behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling. To examine the relationship between utilitarian variables and students’ behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling. Significance of the ThesisThe study is significant for the following reasons:From the review of literature, this study appears to be the first conducted in Jordanian universities to examine the effect of animation and storytelling as a learning process in classrooms.This thesis examines the antecedents of students’ behavioural intention to use animation and storytelling that is a new field in the education sector in Jordan. This thesis reinforces the idea of using animation and storytelling using technology to facilitate and enhance educational methods in Jordan education sector.This thesis adds to the educational and learning literature in the less developed countries.

It is examines different variables that affect the learning process of Jordanian students using animation and storytelling. This thesis practically will provide managements and academics in Jordan universities with strategies to use animation and storytelling effectively in the classrooms. In addition, this thesis will highlight the importance of animation and storytelling to students, especially graduate students who are more creative in their communications, ideas and storytelling. Thesis Model and Hypotheses This thesis is based on deductive approach and quantitative methodology to address it objectives. Furthermore, the thesis has adapted the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, the extended UTAUT2 model that was developed by (Venkatesh et al., 2012) and identifies performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation and utilitarian values as direct determinants of behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling.1.

7.1. The independent variablesPerformance expectancy:Is defined as “the degree to which an individual believes that using the system will help him or her to attain gains in job performance” (Venkatesh et al.

, 2003, p. 447).Effort expectancy:Is defined as “the degree of ease associated with the use of the system” (Venkatesh et al., 2003, p. 450).Social influence:Is defined as “the degree to which an individual perceives that important others believe he or she should use the new system” (Venkatesh et al.

, 2003, p. 451).Facilitating conditions:Is defined as noted by Venkatesh et al. (2003, p. 453), “the degree to which an individual believes that organisational and technical infrastructure exist to support use of the system” is an indication of the presence or otherwise.Hedonic motivation:The hedonic values are related to gratification of the senses enhanced through experiences of pleasure, entertainment, fantasy and playfulness (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982; Babin et al, 1994).

Hedonic values comprise of arousal of the senses (Holbrook and Hirschman, 1982; Hirschman, 1983; Fischer and Arnold, 1990)Utilitarian variables:The utilitarian values are related with rational motives as noted by Batra and Ahtola (1991).Utilitarian values are based upon rational and analytical information processing (Holbrook and Hirschman, 1982; Hirschman, 1983; Fischer and Arnold, 1990) and self-gratification.1.7.2.

The dependent variablesBehavioural intention to use animation and storytellingBehavioural intention is defined as “the person’s subjective probability that he or she will perform the behaviour in question” (Venkatesh et al., 2003, p. 451).Animation is related to cross-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary art and craft, embracing drawing, sculpture, model making, performance, dance, computer science, social science and much more (Berney ; Betrancourt, 2016; Luzon ; Leton, 2015).Storytelling is defined by the National Storytelling Network (2017) as “the interactive art of using words and actions to reveal the elements and images of a story while encouraging the listener’s imagination”.

The Thesis Hypotheses are as following: H1. Performance expectancy has a positive effect on students’ behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling.H2.

Effort expectancy has a positive effect on students’ behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling.H3. Social influence has a positive effect on students’ behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling.H4. Facilitating conditions have a positive effect on students’ behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling.

H5. Hedonic Motivation has a positive effect on students’ behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling.H6. Utilitarian variables have a positive effect on students’ behavioural intention to actual use of animation and storytelling.Methodology The present study collects the data from primary sources using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed using previous literature reviews and research works. The questionnaire so developed contains items based the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, The UTAUT2 model that was developed by (Venkatesh et al., 2012).

Students were asked to give their opinions on a five point Likert scale ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” regarding items incorporated in the questionnaire. To understand the relationship between antecedence of students’ behavioural intention and the actual use of animation and storytelling, questionnaire were filled by (X) students’ in Jordanian universities. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS software version (X). The reliability of variables is measured by Cronbach alpha. The hypotheses of this thesis were tested by structural equation modeling using PLS. Thesis structureThere are five chapters in this thesis. Chapters are organized as follows:Chapter 1: Covers the introduction of the thesis, background, importance, problem, followed by the aim and objectives, thesis significance, thesis model and hypotheses, and methodology.

Chapter 2: Focuses on the literature review relevant to the study variable, differences between theories and the referent articles. Chapter3: Comprises the data analysis used to obtain the results. It comprised the scale measurements, and hypotheses testing. Analytical tests were used to examine antecedes of students behavioural intention to use animation and storytelling. Chapter4: Presents the summary of statistical analysis, with results displayed in tables and charts.

Chapter5: Discusses the major findings and limitation of the study. Recommendations and conclusions are provided at the end of this chapter.