Introduction

Introduction:

Erik Erikson was a German-American developmental psychologist and he developed a theory on psychological development of human beings. In his theory he covered eight stages from birth to death. He could be the most famous for fabricating “identity crisis”.
Like many other theorists, Erikson alleged that every personality develops in a certain order and in that order they build up upon pervious stages. It is called the epigenetic principle.

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During each stage of this theory, “The person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development.”(McLeod, 2018).
According to Erikson’s theory, if you pass a stage or a crisis successfully it will result in obtaining a healthy and positive personality trait but if you fail to pass a crisis successfully it will result in obtaining an unhealthy and negative personality trait. That does not mean that these stage cannot be resolved later in time.
These famous eight stages are:

1. Trust VS. Mistrust (Birth to 18 months):

In this stage, infants learn to trust their surroundings and learn how to depend on other people for their needs. The sense of trust first starts with their mother. This trust usually develops through physical acts between the child and their mother. If for some reason the mother was not able to take care and fulfil the child’s needs then the child will develop mistrust, not only towards the mother but also towards the world and everything around them. If the infant develops mistrust it will affect and continue throughout the remaining stages in their development.

2. Autonomy VS. Shame (18 months to 3 years:

In this stage children start to acknowledge their skills and abilities. They start to be more aware of their bodies. They start to assert their independence, they will try to walk away from their parents, pick their own toy and even pick what they want to eat. They start to slowly make their own decisions.
According to Erikson, it is very important for parents to encourage their children to explore their own abilities and more importantly, parents have to tolerate their failures and not criticise them all the time. An example would be trying to make them put their own clothes on and if they failed or asked for assistant it is okay and the parents should praise them for trying instead of criticising them for failing.
If the child is supported in this stage and encouraged enough they will be more confident and even more independent but if they were constantly criticised for their failure, it will make them think that they will never do anything alone and they will always depend on others. They will develop a sense of shame and doubt. (McLeod, 2018)

3. Initiative VS. Guilt (3 to 5 years):

It happens to be the stage that children start going to pre-school. In this stage, children gradually obtain a large amount of energy with the ability to act on it. They start having the desire to try new things and make their own choices. Nevertheless, children at this age are more open to mistakes and they get tremendously sensitive about feeling the guilt from committing mistakes, even if they were small or they had no control over. For instance, they may start feeling guilty if something bad happening to someone else they know.
Guilt is good to make children recognise their own mistakes; however, extravagant and extreme guilt can result in giving them unhealthy traits and it will cause them to be afraid of their own capabilities and make them feel uncertain of their own skills.

4. Industry VS. Inferiority (5 to 12 years):

In this stage, children start to question themselves if they are capable of doing what they’re asked or want to do. Children’s environment changes from their house to school and from being surrounded by family to being surrounded by teachers and friends. Their world is different now. They start to think that others opinions are important and their self-concepts are developed.
In order to obtain Industry, children need to be praised and they need their confidence boosted and thats where the teacher’s role comes in, when children produce good quality work and they’re rewarded for it, it will help achieve industry. On the other hand, failure will lead to inferiority. As a teacher, you must provide comfort and consultation with unconditional love towards your students when they fail in anything.

5. Identity VS. Role Confusion (12 to 18 years):

At this stage, they start having high exceptions of themselves. It is the stage where children find their sexual identity and who they are. They try to find their purpose and role in society.
They must find a way to balance between their own expectations and what the society expects from them. If they were able to do that, they will get into adulthood with a great sense of individuality and self-confidence. If they fail, it usually leads to having identity crisis (which is being uncertain of who they are and becoming a stereotype).

6. Intimacy VS. Isolation (18 to 40 years):

In this stage, teenagers become young adults. They start working, living their lives and developing more intimate relationships. Intimacy also encourages good physical and emotional health as a person’s identity changes.
Failure to find a partner may cause someone to feel isolated, according to Erikson. This might start making them believe they’re not good enough or there is something wrong with them and it will lead to self-destructive tendencies.

7. Generatively VS. Stagnation (40 to 65 years):

“People start to realise life isn’t just about themselves” (Psychology Notes HQ, 2015). With their actions they hope to make their contributions count and last with the rest of the world. When they achieve this goal they get the sense of accomplishment but if they don’t they start thinking that they haven’t achieved anything meaningful in their lives.

8. Ego Integrity VS. Despair (65+ years):

Integrity happens when people are satisfied with the life they lived. They realise they did accomplish something in their life and that they’re valuable, not only to themselves but to people around them too.
Despair however, happens when people are not satisfied with the life they lived and they think they haven’t accomplished enough. They end up living in sadness and regret for the remainder of their life.

Identity VS. Role Confusion (Personal Reflection):

After the transition from childhood to adolescent, we start to feel confused and insecure about ourselves and we start to worry about how to fit into society. We start exploring with different activities, roles and behaviours. In this stage, the main question we ask ourselves is “Who am I?”. Parents, family members and friends play a huge role in forming our personalities and who we are. You will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self independence only if you received the encouragement and the reinforcement through your personal exploration. If not, you will remain unsure, confused and insecure about yourself and your future.
Personally, In the beginning I wasn’t allowed to explore my choices. I was always uncertain of things and it would take me so long to take an action about anything. I always felt disappointed and confused about my place in life which made it extremely hard for me to accomplish anything or even make any decisions.
However, now I have somewhat of a sense of identity and a sense of who I am. For instance, after failing to find the perfect major for me I finally found the best one that suits me so well and I am very happy with it. It is taking some time and effort to explore and do what is best for me but I believe that commitment and patience is the key to emerge with a strong identity.
Erikson’s theory states that it is possible for a person to pass a certain stage even if they were late or failed them before.

Conclusion:

We all encounter crisis that contributes to our psychosocial growth and according to Erikson’s theory, we encounter them in eight different stages from birth to death.
These stages accompany us from the beginning till the end of our lives and it influences every aspect of it. Erikson’s theory emphasises on the sociocultural development and he presents them in eight stages and everyone has to overcome and resolve the crisis successfully to adjust well in life and environment.

Introduction

Introduction:
Schistosomiasis; sometimes known as snail fever or bilharzia, is an acute and chronic disease caused by a group of parasitic worms called schistosomes or blood flukes. The main three species of schistosome worms that are known to infect humans and cause schistosomiasis disease are: S. haematobium, S. mansoni and S. japonicum. Schistosomes; predominantly found in rural areas upholding agriculture and inland fisheries, are mainly concentrated across Africa, Asia and South America. Following malaria, Schistosomiasis is the most prevalent parasitic infection; affecting an approximate 200 million people worldwide, and in sub-Saharan Africa alone, it is the primary cause of over 200,000 deaths each year. Schistosomiasis can be categorized into two main formats of the disease; intestinal and urogenital.
The cause of infection:
Schistosomes have a very intricate and complex lifecycle revolving around a list of hosts that includes: humans, snails and freshwater sources such as lakes, ponds and reservoirs. Schistosomes have five key developmental stages: eggs, miracidia, sporocysts, cercariae and adult worms. The lifecycle of Schistosomes begins when an infected individual releases Schistosoma eggs into a freshwater environment through urine, faeces or other bodily secretions. Upon coming into direct contact with a freshwater environment, The Schistosoma eggs hatch, producing free living and ciliated forms of their earlier selves; named miracidium. Using unique ciliary movements, Miracidium can freely swim towards their target through propelling-like motion and penetrate the soft tissue of a suitable snail intermediate host; in which they develop into mother sporocysts. The mother sporocysts then reproduce asexually to produce daughter sporocysts which travel to and grow in the hepatic and gonadal tissue of the infected freshwater snail. After a period of time, daughter sporocysts undergo metamorphosis; a process of development by which sporocysts grow into adult forms known as cercariae. Eventually, sunlight stimulates the emergence of free-swimming, fork-tail cercariae from the mollusk of the infected snail into the contaminated freshwater. When an individual gets into direct contact with the contaminated water, the immature and infective cercariae penetrate the skin of the human host via mechanical activity and the action of proteolytic enzymes. During the process of penetration, the cercariae lose their tail; developing into schistosomules (adult worms) allowing easier entry through the epidermis and dermis before entering the blood or lymphatic vessels. Once in the bloodstream, schistosmules begin to reproduce in the blood vessels where they remain in a set state of copulation throughout their adulthood. Blood vessels act as a strategic pathway for reproduction as newly formed eggs can easily migrate to a wide selection of organs, on which they can act. Upon deposition in organs and soft tissues, eggs may cause inflammation, chronic pain, scarring and in some cases, renal failure. A small fraction of other eggs are transported into the gut and are eventually excreted from the body via the individuals faeces, reinjecting the water source, and hence, restarting the entire cycle.

Symptoms:
There are two main factors determining the impact of schistosomiasis: The type of schistosomiasis (intestinal or urogenital) and the stage of infection. Schistosoma mansoni is largely responsible for inducing the intestinal form of the disease, while S. haematobium is directly linked to the development of urogenital schistosomiasis. Intestinal schistosomiasis can result in abdominal pain, malnutrition and diarrhoea. In some more serious and chronic cases, liver enlargement can be frequent and is strongly linked with the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen and therefore hypertension of the abdominal blood vessels. The typical sign of urogenital schistosomiasis is haematuria (presence of red blood cells in the urine).Haematuria can therefore directly lead to anaemia. In more serious cases, fibrosis of the bladder and ureter may occur, possibly causing the rise of other complications, including bladder cancer. In women, urogenital schistosomiasis may lead to genital lesions, vaginal bleeding and pain during sexual intercourse. In men, urogenital schistosomiasis may bring about infection of the seminal vesicles, prostate and other organs. An even more serious and frightening consequence of this disease is infertility.
Diagnosis:
Diagnosis of schistosomiasis is implemented using parasitological (Detection of parasite eggs in stool or urine specimens using microscopical methods) or immunological techniques (Detection of antibodies and/or antigens in blood samples). For urogenital schistosomiasis, a simple filtration technique using materials as basic as paper filters can be used to detect infection thro ugh the presence of blood in urine (indicating haematuria); this can also be detected by chemical reagent strips. For intestinal schistosomiasis, the diagnosis is carried out by examination of stool samples using a method called Kato- katz thick smear method.This method can provide both qualitative and quantitative examinations of intestinal schistosomes. The main advantages of the Kato-katz method is that it is highly specific, cheap, and to some extent simple. However, it was shown by enough evidence that this method lacks the ability of detecting low worm burdens.
Treatments:
In most cases, schistosomiasis can be treated with a short course on a drug named Praziquantel; an acylated quinoline-pyrazine efficacious against all schistosome species parasitizing humans. Even though Praziquantel has been used as the Primary drug for treating and controlling schistosomiasis for many years, its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. The drug acts within one hour of ingestion and effectively kills the targeted schistosome by paralysing the worm and severely damaging its tegument. Side-effects are relatively mild and may include nausea, vomiting, malaise, and abdominal pain. However, in heavy infections, a strong and sudden renal pain (known as acute colic) with bloody diarrhoea can occur shortly after treatment, most likely provoked by large worm shifts and antigen release. However, like with any disease, being proactive is always better than being reactive. And so, its recommended to avoid swimming, paddling, washing or drinking in fresh water that is suspected to be infected. Additionally, it is always advised to wear waterproof clothing if there is a possibility of being near infected areas.
Conclusion
In summary, schistosomiasis is by no means a disease that can be taken lightly, if left untreated it can be extremely potent in both its urogenital and intestinal form; as illustrated in some of its severe symptoms. The well adapted nature of schistosomes have made the disease the second most prevalent parasitic infection but a short course of Praziquantel can prove to be effective against schistosome’s.

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INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION:
AtTfirstTtheTcoatingTsolutionTisTappliedTtoTaTbatchTofTtabletsTinTaTcoatingTpanTthenTtheTtabletTsurfacesTbecomeTcoveredTwithTaTtackyTpolymericTfilm.TTheTappliedTcoatingTchangesTfromTaTstickyTliquidTtoTtackyTsemisolid,TbeforeTtheTtabletTsurfaceTdries.TByTapplyingTtheTcoatingTprocessTmanyTsolidTpharmaceuticalTdosageTformsTareTproducedT.CoatingTcanTbeTdoneTeitherTonTtheTexternalTsurfaceTofTtheTtablet,TorTonTmaterialsTdispensedTwithinTgelatinTcapsulesT.TheTmedicamentTshouldTbeTreleasedTfromTtheTtabletTgraduallyTandTtheTdrugTshouldTbeTavailableTforTdigestionT.TheTcoatingTprocessTcanTbeTspeciallyTdesignedTtoTregulateThowTfirstTtheTtabletTdissolvesTandTfromTwhichTpartsTofTbodyTtheTactiveTdrugsTareTtoTbeTabsorbedTafterTingestion2.

PRIMARYTCOMPONENTTINVOLVEDTINTTABLETTCOATING:
1.TTabletTproperties2.TCoatingTprocess,TdesignTandTcontrolCoatingTequipmentTParametersTofTcoatingTprocessFacilityTandTancillaryTequipmentsAutomationTinTcoatingTprocess.TabletTProperties:
TabletsTthatTareTtoTbeTcoatedTmustThaveTsomeTphysicalTproperties.TInTaTcoatingTpanTtheTtabletsTareTtoTbeTrolled.TToTtolerateTtheTintenseTattritionTofTtabletsTstrikingTotherTtabletsTorTwallsTofTtheTcoatingTequipment,TtheTtabletTmustTbeTresistantTtoTabrasionTandTchipping5,12.

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CoatingTprocess,TDesignT&TControlTheTcoatingTsolutionsTareTsprayedTontoTtheTtabletsTsoTthatTtheTtabletsTareTbeingTagitatedTinTaTpan;TthisTisTdoneTinTmostTcoatingTmethod.TATthinTfilmTisTformedTthatTadheresTdirectlyTtoTeachTtabletTasTtheTcoatingTsolutionTisTbeingTsprayedT.ThroughTaTsingleTapplicationTtheTcoatingTmayTbeTformedTorTitsTcreatedTbyTtheTbuildTupTlayersTthroughTtheTuseTofTmultipleTsprayingTcycles.TInTmanyTpharmaceuticalTindustriesTrotatingTpansTareTused.TUncoatedTtabletsTareTplacedTintoTtheTpanTandTwhenTtheTtabletsTareTinTaTrotatingTmotionTtheTcoatingTsolutionsTareTintroducedTintoTtheTpanT.TheTliquidTportionTofTtheTsolutionTisTgraduallyTevaporatedTwhenTtheThotTairTisTpassedTthroughTtheTsurfaceTofTtheTtumblingTtablets.TAfterTseparatingTtheTtabletsTareTsprayedTwithTtheTcoatingTcomposition.TTheTcoatingTprocessTisTusuallyTconsistingTofTfollowingTsteps:
BatchTidentificationT&TRecipeTselectionTLoadingTorTDispensingTWarmingTSpraying
Drying
Cooling
CoatingTEquipment:
ATcoatingTpanATsprayingTsystemAnTairThandlingTunitTATdustTcollectorHISTORYTOFTCOATINGTTECHNIQUE
“Panning”TwasTtheToriginalTwordTforTtheTprocessTofTaddingTaTcoatingTtoTaTtablet.TInTpastTyearsTcoatingTprocessTwasTconductedTthroughTaTrotatingTdrumTonTaTstandT.AtTfirstTtheTcoatingTsolutionTwasTadded,TthenTwithTtheThelpTofTrotationTmovementTofTtheTdrumTtheTsolutionTwasTfinelyTdistributedTthroughoutTtheTbedTofTtabletsT.TheTmainTdisadvantageTofTthisTsystemTwasTtheTdryingTprocessTwasTveryTslowT.WithTtheTadventTofTfilmTcoatingTaTfilmTorTthinTmembrane,TusuallyTrepresentingT1-3%TofTtheTtotalTtabletTweight,TwasTsprayedTonTusingTaTperforatedTpan3,15.

TRADITIONALTCOATINGTSYSTEM:
GenerallyTthreeTmethodsTareTusedTinTtabletTcoatingSUGARTCOATINGT
FILMTCOATING
ENTERICTCOATINGT
SUGARTCOATING:-
SugarTcoatingTprocessTinvolvesTfiveTseparateToperating:
Sealing/WaterTproofing:TgivesTaTmoistureTbarrierTandThardenTtheTtabletTsurfaceT.

SubTcoating:ThelpTtoTbuildupTtheTtabletTsizeTandTroundedTtheTtabletTedges.

Grossing/Smoothing:TsmoothenTtheTsubcoatedTsurfaceTandTincreaseTtheTsizeTofTtheTtabletTtoTpredetermineTdimension.

Colouring:TcolouringTtheTtablet.

Polishing:TproducesTtheTcharacteristicTgloss4,16
FILMTCOATING:-
IdealTrequirementsTofTfilmTcoatingTmaterials:
SolubilityTinTsolventTofTchoiceTforTcoatingTpreparation.

SolubilityTrequirementTforTtheTintendedTuseTeg.TfreeTwaterTsolubilityT,slowTwaterTsolubilityTorTpHTdependedTsolubility
CapacityTtoTgiveTanTelegantTlookingTproduct.

HavingThighTstabilityTagainstTheat,Tlight,Tmoisture,TairTandTtheTsubstrateTbeingTcoatedT.

NoTinherentTcolour,TtasteTorTodour.

HighTcompatibilityTwithTotherTcoatingTsolutionTadditives.

HighTresistanceTtoTcracking.

FilmTformerTshouldTnotTgiveTbridgingTorTfillingTofTtheTuncoatedTtablet6,7.

TableTNo.T2:TMaterialsTUsedTinTFilmTCoatingS.No. Material Type Uses Examples
1.

FilmTformerEnteric
NonTEntericToTcontrolTtheTreleaseTofTdrugHydroxyTPropylTMethylTCellulose(HPMC)T,MethylTHydroxyTEthylTCellulose(MHEC)
2. TSolvent——- ToTdissolveTorTdisperseTtheTpolymersIPATandTMethyleneTChloride3. Plasticizer Internal
Plasticizing
External
Plasticizing ItTPertainsTtoTtheTchemicalTmodificationTofTtheTbasicTpolymerTthatTaltersTtheTphysicalTpropertiesTofTtheTpolymer.

TItTincorporatedTwithTtheTprimaryTpolymericTfilmTformerT,changesTtheTflexibilityT,TtensileTstrengthT. GlycerolT,PropyleneTglycolT,PEGT200-6000TGrades
DiethylTphthalate(DEP)
4. Colourants Inorganic
Material
NaturalTColoringMaterials ForTlightTshade:TconcentrationTofTlessTthanT0.01%TmayTbeTused
ForTdarkTshade:TconcentrationTofTmoreTthanT2.0%TmayTbeTrequired IronTOxidesCaramelT,Carotenoids5. Opaquant
Extenders —– FormulationTtoTprovideTmoreTpastelTcoloursTandTincreaseTfilmTcoverage TitaniumTdioxideT,silicate8,22
TableTNo.T3:TCharacteristicsTofTFilmTCoatingType CHARACTERISTIC FILMTCOATING
Tablet 1.Appearance
2.TWeightTincreaseTbecauseTofTcoatingTmaterial.

3.LogoTorT’breakTlines’ 1.TRetainTcontourTofToriginalTcore.

2.T2-3%
3.possible
Process 1.OperatorTtrainingTrequired
2.TAdaptabilityTtoTGMP.

3.ProcessTstages
4.FunctionalTcoatings 1.ProcessTtendsTitselfTtoTautomationTandTeasyTtrainingTofToperator
2.THigh
3.UsuallyTSingleTstage
4.TEasilyTadaptableTforTcontrolledTrelease9,21.

TENTERICTCOATING:-
IdealTpropertiesTofTentericTCoatingTMaterials:-
ResistanceTtoTgastricTfluidsSusceptible/permeableTtoTintestinalTfluids.

CompatibilityTwithTmostTcoatingTsolutionTcomponentsTandTtheTdrugTsubstrate.

ContinuousTfilmTformation.

Nontoxic,TcheapTandTeaseTofTapplication10,11.

T
T
RECENTTTRENDSTINTTABLETTCOATINGTTECHNIQUES:TT
TElectrostaticTDayTCoating:
TAnTelectrostaticTdryTpowderTcoatingTprocessTforTtabletTwasTdevelopedTforTtheTfirstTtimeTbyTtheTelectrostaticTdryTpowderTcoatingTinTaTpanTcoatedTsystem.TTheToptimizedTdryTpowderTcoatingTprocessTproducesTtabletsTwithTsmoothTsurfaceTgoodTcoatingTuniformityTandTreleaseTprofileTthatTareTcomparableTtoTthatTofTtheTtabletTcoresT.ThisTnovelTelectrostaticTdryTpowderTcoatingTprocessTcanTbeTusedTasTaTalternativeTprocessTofTaqueousTorTsolventTbasedTcoatingTprocessTinTproductionTunitsT.TheTelectrostaticTcoatingTprocessTisThighlyTdemandingTinTfoodTtechnologyT,metalTcoatingT,coatingTofTlivingTcellsTandTcoatingTofTtabletsTasTwellTasTcapsulesT.TheTprincipleTofTelectrostaticTdryTpowder.TcoatingTstatesTthatTatTfirstTtheTmixtureTofTfinelyTgroundedTparticlesTandTpolymersTisTtoTbeTsprayedTontoTtoTsurfaceTofTtheTsubstrateTwithoutTusingTanyTsolventTandTthenTsubstrateThaveTtoTbeTheatedTuntilTtheTpowderTmixtureTisTfusedTintoTfilm13

TElectrostaticTdryTcoatingT(Pic-1)
TAccordingTtoTtheTchargingTmechanism,TthereTareTtwoTtypesTofTsprayingTunits:
CoronaTchargingTriboTChargingMechanismTofTCoronaTCharging:
InTthisTmechanism,TtheTelectricalTbreakdownTandTionizationTofTairTbyTimposingThighTvoltageTonTaTsharpTpointedTneedleTlikeTelectrodeTatTtheToutletTofTgun.TTheTpowderTparticleTcapturedTtheTnegativeTionTwhenTtheyTareTthrowTtowardsTtheTsubstrateTfromTtheTgun.TWithTtheThelpTofTcombinationTofTelectricalTandTmechanicalTforces,TtheTparticlesTcanTmoveTbetweenTtheTsubstrateTandTtheTchargingTgunT.ByTtheThelpTofTtheTairTblowsTfromTtheTgunTtowardsTtheTsubstrateT,theTmechanicalTforceTcanTbeTgeneratedT.TheTelectricalTfieldTcanTbeTgeneratedTfromTtheTtemporaryTelectricalTfieldTbetweenTtheTsubstrateTandTtheTchargingTtipTofTtheTgun14T.

MechanismTofTtriboTcharging:
InTtheTtriboTcharging,TitTmakesTtheTuseTofTtheTprincipleTofTfrictionTchargingTassociatedTwithTtheTdielectricTpropertiesTofTsolidTmaterialsTandTsoTthatTnoTfreeTionsTandTelectricalTfieldTwillTbeTpresentTbetweenTtheTsprayTgunTandTgroundedTsubstanceT.ForTtheTtriboTchargingTgunsTtheTelectricalTforceTonlyTregardedTtoTtheTrepulsiveTforcesTbetweenTtheTchargedTparticles.TAfterTspraying,TtheTchargedTparticlesTcomeTintoTtheTspaceTadjacentTtoTtheTsubstrateTandTtheTattractionTforcesTbetweenTtheTgroundedTsubstrateTandTtheTchargedTparticlesTmakesTtheTparticlesTtoTdepositTonTtheTsubstrate.TParticlesTareTsprayedTuniformlyTontoTtheTearthenTsubstrateTinTvirtueTofTmechanicalTforcesTandTelectrostaticTattraction.TParticlesTdepositTonTtheTsubstrateTbeforeTtheTrepulsionTforceTofTtheTdepositTparticlesTagainstTtheTcomingTparticlesTincreaseTandTexceedTtheTelectrostaticTattractionT.FinallyTonceTtheTelectrostaticTrepulsionTforceTbecomeTequivalentTtoTattractionTforce,TparticlesTcan’tTadhereTtoTtheTsubstrateTanymoreT.ElectrostaticTdryTcoatingTofTelectricallyTnon-conductingTsubstratesTandTpharmaceuticalTtabletTcoresTisTmoreTdifficultT.ForTsecureTtheTcoatingTtoTtheTcoreT,TtheTpowderTmustTbeTtransformedTintoTaTfilmTwithoutTdamagingTtheTtabletTcore,TwhichTusuallyTincludesTorganicTmaterialsT.TInTadditionT,anTevenTcoatingTisTrequiredTandTitTisTdifficultTtoTobtainTanTevenTcoatingTofTpowderTonTaTtabletTcoreT.

compositionT,triboTandTcoronaTchargingTcharacteristicsT,electricalTresistivity,ThygroscopicityT,fluidityTandTshapeTdistributionTplaysTsignificantTroleTonTtheTperformanceTofTpowderTcoatingTsuchTasTtransferTefficiencyT,TfilmTthicknessT,adhereTandTappearanceT.DistanceTnozzleTgeometryTandTcompositionTofTtheTprecursorTsolutionTplayTanTimportantTroleTonTelectrostaticTcoatingTprocess.T
PhoqusTisTaTleadingT–edgeTdrugTdeliveryTcompanyTwhichTisTprovidingTaTrangeTofTinnovationTandTpatentedTdrugTdeliveryTsystemTbasedTonTelectrostaticTdryTpowderTcoatingTtechnologyT.ThereTareTseveralTpatentsTonTtheTdesignTofTapparatusTwhichTareT
usedTforTelectrostaticTcoatingTasTmentionedTinTtableTno.TMagneticallyTAssistedTImpactionTCoating:TATtechniqueTisTdevelopedTforTestimatingTtheTcoatingTtimeTinTaTmagneticallyTassistedTimpactionTcoatingT(MAIC)TdeviceT.TheTmixtureTofTtheThost,TguestTandTmagneticTparticlesTisTassumedTtoTstayTinTaTfluidizedTstateTwhereTtheTdistributionTofTvelocitiesTisTaTMaxwelBoltzmanTtype16.T
T
TableTNo.4:TDefectsTandTRemediesTofTTabletTCoatingSTNo. TabletTdefectsDefinition Reason Remedies
1. Blistering InTthisTcaseTtheTfilmTbecameTdetachedTfromTtheTsubstrateTformingTblister. DueTtoToverheatingT(eitherTduringTsprayingTorTatTtheTendTofTtheTcoatingTrun)TentrapmentTofTgasesTinTtheTfilm. MildTdryingTconditionsTareTwarrantedTinTthisTcase.

2. Chipping InTthisTcaseTtheTfilmTbecomesTchippedTusuallyTatTtheTedgesTofTtheTtablets. DueTtoTdecreaseTtheTspeedTofTrotatingTofTtheTdrumTinTpanTcoating. InTpreheatingTstageTtheTtabletsTshouldTnotTbeToverTdriedTup,TthatTcanTmakeTtheTtabletsTbrittleTandTpromoteTcapping.

3. Picking HereTisolatedTareasTofTfilmTareTpulledTawayTfromTpulledTaway. ConditionsTsimilarTtoTcreatingTthatTproducesTanToverlyTwetTtabletTbedTwhereTadjacentTtabletsTcanTstickTtogetherTandTthenTbreakTapart. ToTovercomeTthisTproblem,TtheTliquidTapplicationTrateThasTtoTbeTreducedTorTincreaseTinTtheTdryingTairTtemperature.

4. Twinning HereTtwoTtabletsTstickTtogether. CommonTproblemTwithTcapsuleTshapedTtablets. TheTpanTspeedThasTtoTbeTincreaseTorTtheTsprayTrateTshouldTbeTreducedTtoTovercomeTthisTproblem.

5. Pitting InTthisTdefectTpitsToccurTinTtheTsurfaceTofTaTtabletTcore. TemperatureTofTtheTtabletTcoreTbecomesTgreaterTthanTtheTmeltingTpointTofTtheTmaterialTusedTinTtheTtabletTformulation. ControlTtheTtemperatureTofTtheTtabletTcoreTduringTtheTformulation.

6. Cratering ItTisTdefectTofTfilm,TwherebyTvolcanicT–likeTcratersTappearsTexposingTtheTtabletTsurface. LocalizedTdisintegrationTofTtheTcoreTdueTtoTpenetrationTofTtheTcoatingTsolutionTonTtheTtabletTsurface. 7. Blooming InTthisTcaseTtheTcoatingTbecomesTdullTimmediatelyTorTafterTprolongedTstorageTatThighTtemperature. ItTisTdueTtoTcollectionTonTtheTsurfaceTofTlowTmolecularTweightTingredientTincludedTinTtheTcoatingTformulationT.InTmostTcircumstancesTtheTingredientTwillTbeTplasticizer. 8. Blushing ItTisTaTdefectTwhereTwhitishTspecksTorThazinessTappearsTinTtheTfilm. ItTisTthoughtTtoTbeTdueTtoTprecipitatedTpolymerTexacerbatedTbyTtheTuseTofTtheThighTcoatingTtemperatureTatTorTaboveTtheTthermalTgelatinTtemperatureTofTtheTpolymers. 9. ColorTvariationItTisTaTdefectTwhereTvariationTinTcolorTofTtheTfilmTisTappearing. CausesTdueTtoTalternationTofTtheTfrequencyTandTdurationTofTappearanceTofTtabletsTinTtheTsprayTzone. InTthisTcaseTtheTtype’sTplasticizersTandTtheTadditivesThaveTtoTbeTchangedTtoTsolveTfilmTinstabilities.

10. CrackingTorTSplittingItTisTaTdefectTinTwhichTtheTfilmTcracksTacrossTtheTcrownTofTtheTtablet. InternalTstressTinTtheTfilmTexceedsTtensileTstrengthTofTtheTfilm. ByTusingThighTmolecularTweightTpolymers,TtensileTstrengthTofTtheTfilmTcanTbeTincreased.

11. Infilling ItTisTdefectTthatTrendersTtheTintagliationsTindistinctness. InabilityTofTfoam,TformedTbyTairTsprayingTofTaTpolymerTsolutionTtoTbreakT.TheTfoamTdropletsTonTtheTsurfaceTofTtheTtabletTbreakdownTreadilyTdueTtoTattritionTbutTtheTintagliationsTformTaTprotectedTareaTallowingTtheTfoamTtoTaccumulateTtoTaTlevelTapproachingTtheTouterTcontourTofTtheTtabletTsurface. ToTpreventTtheTproblemTofTinfilling,TtheTfluidTapplicationTrateTandTthoroughTmixingTofTtheTtabletsTinTtheTpanTshouldTbeTinTmonitoringT.

12. OrangeTpeelTeffectItTisTaTtypeTofTsurfaceTdefectTwhereTtheTfilmTbecameTroughTandTnonglossy. BeforeTdryingTinadequateTdistributionTofTcoatingTsolutionTonTtabletTsurface UsingTadditionalTsolventTforTthinningTtheTsolutionTcanTpreventTtheTproblem
13. Mottling ItToccursTdueTtoTunevenTdistributionTofTtheTcolorTonTtheTsurfaceTofTtheTtablet. ItToccursTdueTtoTdifferentTcolorationTofTtheTexipient. CoatingTsolutionTprepareTproperlyTinTsufficientTquantity.

CONCLUSION:
InTrecentTdecades,TtheTscopeTofTpharmaceuticalTdosageTformsTisTaTmatterTofToutstandingTdevelopmentTeffortsTtoTensureTandTimproveTtheTqualityTofTtheTtabletTdoseTform.TMagneticallyThelpTpreventTinsulationTandTavoidingTmajorTdisadvantagesTofTelectrostaticTdry-coatingTsolvent-basedTcoating.TWithTonlyTspecialTmaterials,TtheTprocedureTproducesTuniformTcoating.TElectrostaticTdryTcoatingsTareTrequiredTtoTformTspecialTpowderTcoating.TElectrostaticTdryTcoatTproducesTtabletTcoatingsTonTeitherTside,TasTwellTasTprintTtheTtabletTonTtheTpharmaceuticalTdosageTform.TTheTsafetyTaspectsTofTtheseTquotesTamongThumansTwillTstillTbeTfurtherTrevealed.TTheThealthTandTsafetyTaspectsTofTthisTtechnologyTwillTensureTtheTcommercializationTofTthisTskillTinTpharmaceuticalTindustry.TThisTtechnologyThasTsignificantlyTincreasedTdueTtoTtheTrealTmovement,TheatTandTpowerTtransfer,TfilmTdistribution,TdryingTefficiency,TandTcontinuousTprocessingTrelatedTimprovements.THowever,TtheTmoreTconstructiveTimprovementsTofTtheTevaluationTandTsuccessTcoatingTmethodTareTdemonstratedTaccuratelyTdependingTonTtheTanalyticalTtoolsTandTadvancedTmethodTofTmodelingTandTcontrolling.TInTthisTcase,TtheTattainmentTofToptimumTproductionTefficiencyTandThighTproductTqualityTstillTremainsTaTmajorTchallengeTforTfurtherTinvestigate

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