INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION:
AtTfirstTtheTcoatingTsolutionTisTappliedTtoTaTbatchTofTtabletsTinTaTcoatingTpanTthenTtheTtabletTsurfacesTbecomeTcoveredTwithTaTtackyTpolymericTfilm.TTheTappliedTcoatingTchangesTfromTaTstickyTliquidTtoTtackyTsemisolid,TbeforeTtheTtabletTsurfaceTdries.TByTapplyingTtheTcoatingTprocessTmanyTsolidTpharmaceuticalTdosageTformsTareTproducedT.CoatingTcanTbeTdoneTeitherTonTtheTexternalTsurfaceTofTtheTtablet,TorTonTmaterialsTdispensedTwithinTgelatinTcapsulesT.TheTmedicamentTshouldTbeTreleasedTfromTtheTtabletTgraduallyTandTtheTdrugTshouldTbeTavailableTforTdigestionT.TheTcoatingTprocessTcanTbeTspeciallyTdesignedTtoTregulateThowTfirstTtheTtabletTdissolvesTandTfromTwhichTpartsTofTbodyTtheTactiveTdrugsTareTtoTbeTabsorbedTafterTingestion2.

PRIMARYTCOMPONENTTINVOLVEDTINTTABLETTCOATING:
1.TTabletTproperties2.TCoatingTprocess,TdesignTandTcontrolCoatingTequipmentTParametersTofTcoatingTprocessFacilityTandTancillaryTequipmentsAutomationTinTcoatingTprocess.TabletTProperties:
TabletsTthatTareTtoTbeTcoatedTmustThaveTsomeTphysicalTproperties.TInTaTcoatingTpanTtheTtabletsTareTtoTbeTrolled.TToTtolerateTtheTintenseTattritionTofTtabletsTstrikingTotherTtabletsTorTwallsTofTtheTcoatingTequipment,TtheTtabletTmustTbeTresistantTtoTabrasionTandTchipping5,12.

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CoatingTprocess,TDesignT&TControlTheTcoatingTsolutionsTareTsprayedTontoTtheTtabletsTsoTthatTtheTtabletsTareTbeingTagitatedTinTaTpan;TthisTisTdoneTinTmostTcoatingTmethod.TATthinTfilmTisTformedTthatTadheresTdirectlyTtoTeachTtabletTasTtheTcoatingTsolutionTisTbeingTsprayedT.ThroughTaTsingleTapplicationTtheTcoatingTmayTbeTformedTorTitsTcreatedTbyTtheTbuildTupTlayersTthroughTtheTuseTofTmultipleTsprayingTcycles.TInTmanyTpharmaceuticalTindustriesTrotatingTpansTareTused.TUncoatedTtabletsTareTplacedTintoTtheTpanTandTwhenTtheTtabletsTareTinTaTrotatingTmotionTtheTcoatingTsolutionsTareTintroducedTintoTtheTpanT.TheTliquidTportionTofTtheTsolutionTisTgraduallyTevaporatedTwhenTtheThotTairTisTpassedTthroughTtheTsurfaceTofTtheTtumblingTtablets.TAfterTseparatingTtheTtabletsTareTsprayedTwithTtheTcoatingTcomposition.TTheTcoatingTprocessTisTusuallyTconsistingTofTfollowingTsteps:
BatchTidentificationT&TRecipeTselectionTLoadingTorTDispensingTWarmingTSpraying
Drying
Cooling
CoatingTEquipment:
ATcoatingTpanATsprayingTsystemAnTairThandlingTunitTATdustTcollectorHISTORYTOFTCOATINGTTECHNIQUE
“Panning”TwasTtheToriginalTwordTforTtheTprocessTofTaddingTaTcoatingTtoTaTtablet.TInTpastTyearsTcoatingTprocessTwasTconductedTthroughTaTrotatingTdrumTonTaTstandT.AtTfirstTtheTcoatingTsolutionTwasTadded,TthenTwithTtheThelpTofTrotationTmovementTofTtheTdrumTtheTsolutionTwasTfinelyTdistributedTthroughoutTtheTbedTofTtabletsT.TheTmainTdisadvantageTofTthisTsystemTwasTtheTdryingTprocessTwasTveryTslowT.WithTtheTadventTofTfilmTcoatingTaTfilmTorTthinTmembrane,TusuallyTrepresentingT1-3%TofTtheTtotalTtabletTweight,TwasTsprayedTonTusingTaTperforatedTpan3,15.

TRADITIONALTCOATINGTSYSTEM:
GenerallyTthreeTmethodsTareTusedTinTtabletTcoatingSUGARTCOATINGT
FILMTCOATING
ENTERICTCOATINGT
SUGARTCOATING:-
SugarTcoatingTprocessTinvolvesTfiveTseparateToperating:
Sealing/WaterTproofing:TgivesTaTmoistureTbarrierTandThardenTtheTtabletTsurfaceT.

SubTcoating:ThelpTtoTbuildupTtheTtabletTsizeTandTroundedTtheTtabletTedges.

Grossing/Smoothing:TsmoothenTtheTsubcoatedTsurfaceTandTincreaseTtheTsizeTofTtheTtabletTtoTpredetermineTdimension.

Colouring:TcolouringTtheTtablet.

Polishing:TproducesTtheTcharacteristicTgloss4,16
FILMTCOATING:-
IdealTrequirementsTofTfilmTcoatingTmaterials:
SolubilityTinTsolventTofTchoiceTforTcoatingTpreparation.

SolubilityTrequirementTforTtheTintendedTuseTeg.TfreeTwaterTsolubilityT,slowTwaterTsolubilityTorTpHTdependedTsolubility
CapacityTtoTgiveTanTelegantTlookingTproduct.

HavingThighTstabilityTagainstTheat,Tlight,Tmoisture,TairTandTtheTsubstrateTbeingTcoatedT.

NoTinherentTcolour,TtasteTorTodour.

HighTcompatibilityTwithTotherTcoatingTsolutionTadditives.

HighTresistanceTtoTcracking.

FilmTformerTshouldTnotTgiveTbridgingTorTfillingTofTtheTuncoatedTtablet6,7.

TableTNo.T2:TMaterialsTUsedTinTFilmTCoatingS.No. Material Type Uses Examples
1.

FilmTformerEnteric
NonTEntericToTcontrolTtheTreleaseTofTdrugHydroxyTPropylTMethylTCellulose(HPMC)T,MethylTHydroxyTEthylTCellulose(MHEC)
2. TSolvent——- ToTdissolveTorTdisperseTtheTpolymersIPATandTMethyleneTChloride3. Plasticizer Internal
Plasticizing
External
Plasticizing ItTPertainsTtoTtheTchemicalTmodificationTofTtheTbasicTpolymerTthatTaltersTtheTphysicalTpropertiesTofTtheTpolymer.

TItTincorporatedTwithTtheTprimaryTpolymericTfilmTformerT,changesTtheTflexibilityT,TtensileTstrengthT. GlycerolT,PropyleneTglycolT,PEGT200-6000TGrades
DiethylTphthalate(DEP)
4. Colourants Inorganic
Material
NaturalTColoringMaterials ForTlightTshade:TconcentrationTofTlessTthanT0.01%TmayTbeTused
ForTdarkTshade:TconcentrationTofTmoreTthanT2.0%TmayTbeTrequired IronTOxidesCaramelT,Carotenoids5. Opaquant
Extenders —– FormulationTtoTprovideTmoreTpastelTcoloursTandTincreaseTfilmTcoverage TitaniumTdioxideT,silicate8,22
TableTNo.T3:TCharacteristicsTofTFilmTCoatingType CHARACTERISTIC FILMTCOATING
Tablet 1.Appearance
2.TWeightTincreaseTbecauseTofTcoatingTmaterial.

3.LogoTorT’breakTlines’ 1.TRetainTcontourTofToriginalTcore.

2.T2-3%
3.possible
Process 1.OperatorTtrainingTrequired
2.TAdaptabilityTtoTGMP.

3.ProcessTstages
4.FunctionalTcoatings 1.ProcessTtendsTitselfTtoTautomationTandTeasyTtrainingTofToperator
2.THigh
3.UsuallyTSingleTstage
4.TEasilyTadaptableTforTcontrolledTrelease9,21.

TENTERICTCOATING:-
IdealTpropertiesTofTentericTCoatingTMaterials:-
ResistanceTtoTgastricTfluidsSusceptible/permeableTtoTintestinalTfluids.

CompatibilityTwithTmostTcoatingTsolutionTcomponentsTandTtheTdrugTsubstrate.

ContinuousTfilmTformation.

Nontoxic,TcheapTandTeaseTofTapplication10,11.

T
T
RECENTTTRENDSTINTTABLETTCOATINGTTECHNIQUES:TT
TElectrostaticTDayTCoating:
TAnTelectrostaticTdryTpowderTcoatingTprocessTforTtabletTwasTdevelopedTforTtheTfirstTtimeTbyTtheTelectrostaticTdryTpowderTcoatingTinTaTpanTcoatedTsystem.TTheToptimizedTdryTpowderTcoatingTprocessTproducesTtabletsTwithTsmoothTsurfaceTgoodTcoatingTuniformityTandTreleaseTprofileTthatTareTcomparableTtoTthatTofTtheTtabletTcoresT.ThisTnovelTelectrostaticTdryTpowderTcoatingTprocessTcanTbeTusedTasTaTalternativeTprocessTofTaqueousTorTsolventTbasedTcoatingTprocessTinTproductionTunitsT.TheTelectrostaticTcoatingTprocessTisThighlyTdemandingTinTfoodTtechnologyT,metalTcoatingT,coatingTofTlivingTcellsTandTcoatingTofTtabletsTasTwellTasTcapsulesT.TheTprincipleTofTelectrostaticTdryTpowder.TcoatingTstatesTthatTatTfirstTtheTmixtureTofTfinelyTgroundedTparticlesTandTpolymersTisTtoTbeTsprayedTontoTtoTsurfaceTofTtheTsubstrateTwithoutTusingTanyTsolventTandTthenTsubstrateThaveTtoTbeTheatedTuntilTtheTpowderTmixtureTisTfusedTintoTfilm13

TElectrostaticTdryTcoatingT(Pic-1)
TAccordingTtoTtheTchargingTmechanism,TthereTareTtwoTtypesTofTsprayingTunits:
CoronaTchargingTriboTChargingMechanismTofTCoronaTCharging:
InTthisTmechanism,TtheTelectricalTbreakdownTandTionizationTofTairTbyTimposingThighTvoltageTonTaTsharpTpointedTneedleTlikeTelectrodeTatTtheToutletTofTgun.TTheTpowderTparticleTcapturedTtheTnegativeTionTwhenTtheyTareTthrowTtowardsTtheTsubstrateTfromTtheTgun.TWithTtheThelpTofTcombinationTofTelectricalTandTmechanicalTforces,TtheTparticlesTcanTmoveTbetweenTtheTsubstrateTandTtheTchargingTgunT.ByTtheThelpTofTtheTairTblowsTfromTtheTgunTtowardsTtheTsubstrateT,theTmechanicalTforceTcanTbeTgeneratedT.TheTelectricalTfieldTcanTbeTgeneratedTfromTtheTtemporaryTelectricalTfieldTbetweenTtheTsubstrateTandTtheTchargingTtipTofTtheTgun14T.

MechanismTofTtriboTcharging:
InTtheTtriboTcharging,TitTmakesTtheTuseTofTtheTprincipleTofTfrictionTchargingTassociatedTwithTtheTdielectricTpropertiesTofTsolidTmaterialsTandTsoTthatTnoTfreeTionsTandTelectricalTfieldTwillTbeTpresentTbetweenTtheTsprayTgunTandTgroundedTsubstanceT.ForTtheTtriboTchargingTgunsTtheTelectricalTforceTonlyTregardedTtoTtheTrepulsiveTforcesTbetweenTtheTchargedTparticles.TAfterTspraying,TtheTchargedTparticlesTcomeTintoTtheTspaceTadjacentTtoTtheTsubstrateTandTtheTattractionTforcesTbetweenTtheTgroundedTsubstrateTandTtheTchargedTparticlesTmakesTtheTparticlesTtoTdepositTonTtheTsubstrate.TParticlesTareTsprayedTuniformlyTontoTtheTearthenTsubstrateTinTvirtueTofTmechanicalTforcesTandTelectrostaticTattraction.TParticlesTdepositTonTtheTsubstrateTbeforeTtheTrepulsionTforceTofTtheTdepositTparticlesTagainstTtheTcomingTparticlesTincreaseTandTexceedTtheTelectrostaticTattractionT.FinallyTonceTtheTelectrostaticTrepulsionTforceTbecomeTequivalentTtoTattractionTforce,TparticlesTcan’tTadhereTtoTtheTsubstrateTanymoreT.ElectrostaticTdryTcoatingTofTelectricallyTnon-conductingTsubstratesTandTpharmaceuticalTtabletTcoresTisTmoreTdifficultT.ForTsecureTtheTcoatingTtoTtheTcoreT,TtheTpowderTmustTbeTtransformedTintoTaTfilmTwithoutTdamagingTtheTtabletTcore,TwhichTusuallyTincludesTorganicTmaterialsT.TInTadditionT,anTevenTcoatingTisTrequiredTandTitTisTdifficultTtoTobtainTanTevenTcoatingTofTpowderTonTaTtabletTcoreT.

compositionT,triboTandTcoronaTchargingTcharacteristicsT,electricalTresistivity,ThygroscopicityT,fluidityTandTshapeTdistributionTplaysTsignificantTroleTonTtheTperformanceTofTpowderTcoatingTsuchTasTtransferTefficiencyT,TfilmTthicknessT,adhereTandTappearanceT.DistanceTnozzleTgeometryTandTcompositionTofTtheTprecursorTsolutionTplayTanTimportantTroleTonTelectrostaticTcoatingTprocess.T
PhoqusTisTaTleadingT–edgeTdrugTdeliveryTcompanyTwhichTisTprovidingTaTrangeTofTinnovationTandTpatentedTdrugTdeliveryTsystemTbasedTonTelectrostaticTdryTpowderTcoatingTtechnologyT.ThereTareTseveralTpatentsTonTtheTdesignTofTapparatusTwhichTareT
usedTforTelectrostaticTcoatingTasTmentionedTinTtableTno.TMagneticallyTAssistedTImpactionTCoating:TATtechniqueTisTdevelopedTforTestimatingTtheTcoatingTtimeTinTaTmagneticallyTassistedTimpactionTcoatingT(MAIC)TdeviceT.TheTmixtureTofTtheThost,TguestTandTmagneticTparticlesTisTassumedTtoTstayTinTaTfluidizedTstateTwhereTtheTdistributionTofTvelocitiesTisTaTMaxwelBoltzmanTtype16.T
T
TableTNo.4:TDefectsTandTRemediesTofTTabletTCoatingSTNo. TabletTdefectsDefinition Reason Remedies
1. Blistering InTthisTcaseTtheTfilmTbecameTdetachedTfromTtheTsubstrateTformingTblister. DueTtoToverheatingT(eitherTduringTsprayingTorTatTtheTendTofTtheTcoatingTrun)TentrapmentTofTgasesTinTtheTfilm. MildTdryingTconditionsTareTwarrantedTinTthisTcase.

2. Chipping InTthisTcaseTtheTfilmTbecomesTchippedTusuallyTatTtheTedgesTofTtheTtablets. DueTtoTdecreaseTtheTspeedTofTrotatingTofTtheTdrumTinTpanTcoating. InTpreheatingTstageTtheTtabletsTshouldTnotTbeToverTdriedTup,TthatTcanTmakeTtheTtabletsTbrittleTandTpromoteTcapping.

3. Picking HereTisolatedTareasTofTfilmTareTpulledTawayTfromTpulledTaway. ConditionsTsimilarTtoTcreatingTthatTproducesTanToverlyTwetTtabletTbedTwhereTadjacentTtabletsTcanTstickTtogetherTandTthenTbreakTapart. ToTovercomeTthisTproblem,TtheTliquidTapplicationTrateThasTtoTbeTreducedTorTincreaseTinTtheTdryingTairTtemperature.

4. Twinning HereTtwoTtabletsTstickTtogether. CommonTproblemTwithTcapsuleTshapedTtablets. TheTpanTspeedThasTtoTbeTincreaseTorTtheTsprayTrateTshouldTbeTreducedTtoTovercomeTthisTproblem.

5. Pitting InTthisTdefectTpitsToccurTinTtheTsurfaceTofTaTtabletTcore. TemperatureTofTtheTtabletTcoreTbecomesTgreaterTthanTtheTmeltingTpointTofTtheTmaterialTusedTinTtheTtabletTformulation. ControlTtheTtemperatureTofTtheTtabletTcoreTduringTtheTformulation.

6. Cratering ItTisTdefectTofTfilm,TwherebyTvolcanicT–likeTcratersTappearsTexposingTtheTtabletTsurface. LocalizedTdisintegrationTofTtheTcoreTdueTtoTpenetrationTofTtheTcoatingTsolutionTonTtheTtabletTsurface. 7. Blooming InTthisTcaseTtheTcoatingTbecomesTdullTimmediatelyTorTafterTprolongedTstorageTatThighTtemperature. ItTisTdueTtoTcollectionTonTtheTsurfaceTofTlowTmolecularTweightTingredientTincludedTinTtheTcoatingTformulationT.InTmostTcircumstancesTtheTingredientTwillTbeTplasticizer. 8. Blushing ItTisTaTdefectTwhereTwhitishTspecksTorThazinessTappearsTinTtheTfilm. ItTisTthoughtTtoTbeTdueTtoTprecipitatedTpolymerTexacerbatedTbyTtheTuseTofTtheThighTcoatingTtemperatureTatTorTaboveTtheTthermalTgelatinTtemperatureTofTtheTpolymers. 9. ColorTvariationItTisTaTdefectTwhereTvariationTinTcolorTofTtheTfilmTisTappearing. CausesTdueTtoTalternationTofTtheTfrequencyTandTdurationTofTappearanceTofTtabletsTinTtheTsprayTzone. InTthisTcaseTtheTtype’sTplasticizersTandTtheTadditivesThaveTtoTbeTchangedTtoTsolveTfilmTinstabilities.

10. CrackingTorTSplittingItTisTaTdefectTinTwhichTtheTfilmTcracksTacrossTtheTcrownTofTtheTtablet. InternalTstressTinTtheTfilmTexceedsTtensileTstrengthTofTtheTfilm. ByTusingThighTmolecularTweightTpolymers,TtensileTstrengthTofTtheTfilmTcanTbeTincreased.

11. Infilling ItTisTdefectTthatTrendersTtheTintagliationsTindistinctness. InabilityTofTfoam,TformedTbyTairTsprayingTofTaTpolymerTsolutionTtoTbreakT.TheTfoamTdropletsTonTtheTsurfaceTofTtheTtabletTbreakdownTreadilyTdueTtoTattritionTbutTtheTintagliationsTformTaTprotectedTareaTallowingTtheTfoamTtoTaccumulateTtoTaTlevelTapproachingTtheTouterTcontourTofTtheTtabletTsurface. ToTpreventTtheTproblemTofTinfilling,TtheTfluidTapplicationTrateTandTthoroughTmixingTofTtheTtabletsTinTtheTpanTshouldTbeTinTmonitoringT.

12. OrangeTpeelTeffectItTisTaTtypeTofTsurfaceTdefectTwhereTtheTfilmTbecameTroughTandTnonglossy. BeforeTdryingTinadequateTdistributionTofTcoatingTsolutionTonTtabletTsurface UsingTadditionalTsolventTforTthinningTtheTsolutionTcanTpreventTtheTproblem
13. Mottling ItToccursTdueTtoTunevenTdistributionTofTtheTcolorTonTtheTsurfaceTofTtheTtablet. ItToccursTdueTtoTdifferentTcolorationTofTtheTexipient. CoatingTsolutionTprepareTproperlyTinTsufficientTquantity.

CONCLUSION:
InTrecentTdecades,TtheTscopeTofTpharmaceuticalTdosageTformsTisTaTmatterTofToutstandingTdevelopmentTeffortsTtoTensureTandTimproveTtheTqualityTofTtheTtabletTdoseTform.TMagneticallyThelpTpreventTinsulationTandTavoidingTmajorTdisadvantagesTofTelectrostaticTdry-coatingTsolvent-basedTcoating.TWithTonlyTspecialTmaterials,TtheTprocedureTproducesTuniformTcoating.TElectrostaticTdryTcoatingsTareTrequiredTtoTformTspecialTpowderTcoating.TElectrostaticTdryTcoatTproducesTtabletTcoatingsTonTeitherTside,TasTwellTasTprintTtheTtabletTonTtheTpharmaceuticalTdosageTform.TTheTsafetyTaspectsTofTtheseTquotesTamongThumansTwillTstillTbeTfurtherTrevealed.TTheThealthTandTsafetyTaspectsTofTthisTtechnologyTwillTensureTtheTcommercializationTofTthisTskillTinTpharmaceuticalTindustry.TThisTtechnologyThasTsignificantlyTincreasedTdueTtoTtheTrealTmovement,TheatTandTpowerTtransfer,TfilmTdistribution,TdryingTefficiency,TandTcontinuousTprocessingTrelatedTimprovements.THowever,TtheTmoreTconstructiveTimprovementsTofTtheTevaluationTandTsuccessTcoatingTmethodTareTdemonstratedTaccuratelyTdependingTonTtheTanalyticalTtoolsTandTadvancedTmethodTofTmodelingTandTcontrolling.TInTthisTcase,TtheTattainmentTofToptimumTproductionTefficiencyTandThighTproductTqualityTstillTremainsTaTmajorTchallengeTforTfurtherTinvestigate