Missouri “Tallmage Ammendment2” , which was defeated in the

Missouri compromise in 18201 was a piece of legislation set
by Henry clay with the intentions to defuse the tensions between Americas
Bicameral Parliament , created by Missouris request as slave state. Following
Louisiana acceptance as a slave state in 1812 there were no other territories
petioning congress for statehood out of Purchase lands. This was until 1812
whereby  request by Missouri , challenged
the stability of both the Senate and the House and through the differentiation
in opinions of policies an impasse within the government sparked. As well as
generating tensions, Missouries admittance being in the trajectory of the free
states marked the beginning of the antebellum period whereby westward expansion
became a focus and fear in the Northern territories and consequently in effort
to combat the reality of westward expansion, Southerners way of life became
threatened. The granting of Missouris request received immediate opposition
particularly by James Tallamage who proposed the “Tallmage Ammendment2” , which
was defeated in the senate who held a parity of free and slave states despite
being passed in the house who had more free states. The Missouri compromise
conditions included accepting maine who was initially part of Maschettutes as a
free state in order to enable parity of free and slave states as well as
prohibiting slavery in areas of the Louisana Purchase that is north of the
36’30 parallel.Slavery being prohibite in areas of the Louisiana Purchase north
of 36’30 parallel was mainly done so as a method of ensuring fears of westward
expansions fo slavery is at bay. The controvery that sparked through as Missouris
request hihglighted the division in the nation and how slavery was a prominent
factor in engineering this divison. This plays into how the Missouri compromise
kick starts the antebellum period , whereby slavery and its econmics drove the
southern sentiment and fear of westward expansion was a massive threat for the
northerners. This ultimatley ties in with how the Missouri compromise became a
stepping stone for these sentiments to heighten and thus spiral out of control
, consequently leading to a civil war . 
In terms of slaves , the compromise destoryed the hopes for emancipation
of slaves on a gradual levels and essentially helped slaver to become a
legitimate Southern institution. However, the division in the South and North
as a whole , was created through the cotton gin invention as it made the belief
of slavery dying out which was accepted by both the North and the South


The future of slavery began to look bleak pre cotton gin era
for both economic and social reasons . Prior the cotton gin invention, the
southern economy began declining through the exhausation of land created by
tobacco production in hand with the field creating “lesser yields”. In essence
this meant, fields giving 1000 pounds of cotton in 1700 were giving half that
by 17933. In terms of Southern production and profitability , Thomas Jefferson
letter to  William Draytion in 30 July
17874 , highlighted his belief that grain demand from Europe will essentially
become the number one export, which did not require plantation labour,
decreasing the demand for slave labour. Across northern territories, many
states began the prohibition of slaves as evident in Connecticut, Rhode Island
and Georgia prohibiton of slaves in 1774 as well as Delware in 17765. As well
as prohibiting slaves, societys such as Pennsylvania Quakers began to actively
forbid members from owning slaves or engaging slave trade in effort to put a halt
to international slave trade. African Americans, were also active in American
politics which is seen in Massachusetts slaves petition for the government in
terms of their freedom in October in 28, 1783. Although unsuccessful, the
ability for slaves to petition led for hope in freedom of slavers and thus
created a foundation for other slaves to gain rights. This is evident , in
January 1800 whereby the free black people Philadelphia petition for the
congress to end the trade in 1794 was validated in 18076. In conclusion, the
period before cotton gin invention consisted of decline of slavery both
economically and socially.

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Eli Whitneys cotton gin invention in 1793 revolutionized the
production of cotton through reigoravting the plantation system. Whitney was
able to create the piece of technology under the Patent bill of 1790, which
essentially changed the dynamic of the Southern economy. Slave labour increased
drastically because although the cotton gin did make cotton production faster,
slaves were required to separate the seeds from the cotton fibres7. This
highlights a change, as pre cotton period, tobacco exhausting the land in
addition to grain production not requiring plantation labour, made slaves not
much of as a necessity unlike post cotton gin period. The increase in slave
labour demand is evident as in 1790 there was 657,000 slaves and by 1810 there
were almost 1.3 million8. As a consequence of the increase in the number of
slaves the cotton production, the US produced 5m lbs of cotton in 1793 and by
1820 produced 170m lbs.e  . Although, in
1808 United States banned Slave trade importing African slaves, smuggling from
Southern farmers continued.The continuous smuggling of Southerners highlights
how the economic prosperity created by the Cotton gin drove slavery to become
the fabric for southern economy, and in effort to maintain the financial
benefits, slave owners were adamant in increasing slave labour through acts
such as smuggling. Moreover, it is significant in understanding how slave
labour drove westward expansion, which is one of the key elements dividing the
South and North. Around the years 1790 to 1810 , approximately 100,000 slaves
were imported to cotton fields in the South and West and from 1810 each decade
, 100,0009 slaves were forced westward into Indian territories such as Alabama
, Missisippi and Louisana which were valuable for plantation profitability. In
terms of treatment of black people, the movement westwards for slaves led to
separation from their loved ones as well as placement in lands alien to them
and their usual customs. This thus shows how Whitney’s cotton gin invention
became the key component in the change of treatment of black people as it
placed the spotlight back on maintaining slavery , and intensified the needs for
slaves in which through ruthless systems such as the gang  system adopted by Southern slave owners,
placed slaves under horrific ordeals.

Several accounts support the idea of cotton gin being
significant in the treatment of black people. The increase of cotton demand
drove westward expansion into Indian territory which was great value for cotton
profitability  thus creating an influx of
slaves chained in “coffles into their new territories. The new territories
came had different conditions in which many slaves feared, whereby some even
“fought like tigers”10 in avoidance of the tougher cotton regime in
upper South territories who operated under task systems. The differentiation in
conditions for slaves is highlighted by Edward.E Baptist stating surviving slaves
recalled when crossing into Western territories they “entered a world
fundamentally different from the one in which they had toiled before”.
This is supported by the “Second Middle Passage11″notion whereby over
1million slaves who moved weswtards were in “coffles” and forced to
leave their families. Unlike cotton plantations, tobacco plantations were
smaller in size and did not operate under the gang system12 as it wasn’t deemed
necessary due to cotton gin invention leading to Tobacco falling in value13 .
However following the cotton gin invention, cotton plantations in westwern
territories operated under the task system which required both children and
woman to work under a black overseer who was equipped with whips. This is
evident in Charles Ball14 reports “the overseer with his whip im his hand
walked about the field after us” , with ‘Us’ being a reference to include
him, the children and the woman. This gives plausbile to the Edward.E Baptist
statement of forced migrants “entering a world fundamentally different
from the one in which they had toiled before” as slaves who initially
worked on Tobacco fields in the deep south , did not endure this ordeal and
actually had some freedom in the work.

Numerous of statements made by Edward.E Baptist receives
contemporary support, which essentially adds credibility to his points. Baptist
graduated from the University of Pensylvannia and a Professor of History at
Cornell University, Ithaca , New York15 where he a specialist on the history of
the 19th – century United States, supporting the value of his published work.
His keen on interest on the enslavement of USA makes his argument more credible
through the in depth research carried by Baptist . Based on the time period
“The Half has never been told” was written which is in 9th September 2014
, the information given us could been distorted thus making it less
comprehensive. This is evident in this argument that United States had a “near
monopoly” in terms of cotton trade by 1820. The idea of distorted information
is highlighted in the fact that Baptist own charts show share of U.S global
production to be less than 30%16, this essentially highlights distorted
information as well as potential bias, reason being Baptist deciding to turn a
blind eye on factual information created by his own charts in effort to shun
the cotton trade and exaggerate the reality of it. Despite this, Baptists
numbers of slave accounts and level of statistics adds value to the information
given. Edward Baptist information does obtain some credibility and usefulness
in understanding the framework of cotton trade, however the value of his work
is tainted by the underlying bias in his information.

Edward E. Baptist book “The half has never been told
” has been discredited by Trevor Burnard Pages 180-18517 . He refers to
the book as being “inadequately researched” and “showing a lack
of familarity with economic theory”. 
Burnards statement regarding the work of Edward E.Baptist is supported
by the Psuedrmaras18 who challenges Baptist view and discredits the idea that
torture was a key element responsible for the US cotton boom 1800-60 in
comparison to cotton cultivators and frontier soils. It states that Baptist
idea that the increase in the rates of cotton picking by slaves was due to the
gang labour system is in fact incorrect as evident in the Oldmstead and Rhode
statistical case whereby the the increase of cotton production from 25 lbs to
100 lbs19 raw cotton per day between 1800-1860 was actually possible through
the introduction of new seeds with higher yields which in turn made it easier
for slaves to obtain plants in territories in new south. This supports the
Trevord Burnards critique of Baptists information being “inadqautely
researched” and lacking familiarity 
with economic theory”.

Both historians are qualified in terms of academia and
obtain a high level of expertise, with both being professors at university.
However in terms of distorted information and bias, Burnard maintains the upper
hand in avoidance of it as his statement of Baptists information being
“inadequately researched ” and “lacking familiartiy with economic theory” was
supported with numerous amount evidence highlighting Baptists vague statements
suggesting Burnard to potentially be more credible. Moreover, Baptiste tone
throughout the book was one to provoke empathic feelings which essentially
meant some part of his work was biased through his feelings and resentment
towards slavery , which is evident through statements such as “Perhaps one
unspoken reason why many have been so reluctant to apply the term “torture” to
slavery is that even though they denied slavery’s economic dynamism, they knew
that slavery on the cotton frontier made a lot of product”. He’s focal on
‘torture’ as an they key element that made a lot of product whilst disregarding
the introduction of new seeds, which thus supports the point that a lot of
Baptists information is distorted and bias mainly because his work is
reflective of his own opinion on slavery as whole. His consistency on “the
horror of the lived experience of enslavement” as quoted by Burnard , is also
shown through his support on replacing Andrew Jackson with Harriet Tubman20 in
terms of the United states twenty dollar bill on the basis that ” Harriet
Tubman is whats good about America… Andrew Jackson is whats problematic about
our history”. On the other hand, Burnards work is less bias with his work and
this is shown in his publishment in June 2016 of ‘Colonialism and slavery’ in
which was a co-authored comparative study. This thus suggests the likelihood of
his information being distorted is less especially with a second opinion from
another author.

The economic prosperity created by the cotton gin, led the
south to grow further in not just economical terms but also in ideology and
society, thus creating sectionalism in which the 1820 Missouri compromise
heightened.  The cotton boom generated by
the “King cotton” , fuelled the determination for Southerners to expand
westwards due to its profitability in which as a consequence threatened the
Northerners.  The Missouri compromise
both intensified the fear of westward expansion through admitting Missouri
despite being in the trajectory of free states , as well as pronouncing the
sectional divides through drawing an imaginary line across the Louisanan
territory known as the 36’30 latitude. This in turn, threatened both the North
and South sentiments and thus both sides quickly became adamant in defending
their interest. Evidently , the South defended slavery as a “necessary evil” in
which figures such as Geroge Fitzguh in 1854 viewed slavery as pivotal through
pointing slavery “provided him with food and shelter21”.  This is significant as prior to the cotton
gin , Southerners did not assert slavery as beneficial to society but rather
its removal off it would affect the south greatly.  On the opposing side , the Northerners in
effort to avoid the South forcing their “peculiar instituon” on them , adopted
the Tarrif abominations of 182822 to protect their agriculatural interest
through raisng tarrifs and importing taxes on wool , fur , and flax. This bill
was adopted as following the Missouri compromise, the fear of westward
expansion became more real for the Northeners and thus their sentiments were
more threatened than before following the admittance of Missouri.

The willingness and how adamant both the North and South to
uphold their interest  drastically grew
post Missouri compromise . William Lloyd Garrison an abolitionist  publication23 of the “The liberator” opens up
by stating “line “I am in earnest — I will not equivocate — I will not excuse —
I will not retreat a single inch — AND I WILL BE HEARD,”. The tone of this
highlights the determination and willingness of Northerners to fight for their
interest. Response to liberator by a Southern in the National intelligencer in
September 15, 183124 highlights how the increase of tension created by the
Missouri compromise through pronouncing the sectional divides, sparked a
violent intents by the South in order to protect their “Southern way of life”
as the response states how he has “the avowed prupose of inciting rebellion in
the South”. Both the publication and response happened post Missouri compromise
, evidently showing the increase of tensions as well change in the dynamics of
the relationship between the North and South in comparison to the Era of good
feelings in which during Monroes presidencies from 186-1824 both sides were
able to come to some common ground and understanding of another . This is shown
in the war of 181225 in which some issues diving both sides were halted as well
the Republicans ability to embrace and understand the issues by the
Federalists.  In conclusion, the Missouri
compromise swept the issue of slavery under the rug and created the foundation
for tensions to boil up through threatening the South and North sentiments.



Ira Berlin -The long emancipation26 is valuable in
explaining the threats Southerners felt regarding the sentiments towards
slavery post missouri compromise . In his written piece he states slaves owners
were “through a series of subterfuges were eroding the prohibition of slavery
in the Northwest”. This is evident through the 185027 fugitive slave law
whereby slave owners had the right to capture escaped slaves within the border
of Northern territories and upon capturing a penalty of $1000 and 6 months in
jail was given to those interfering with the rendition process. However, this
law existed pre-Missouri compromise, known as the The Fugitive Slave Act of
179328 Although , the rights for Southerners to capture fugitive slave
continued the change in these laws were that unlike the 1850 fugitive slave law
, captured slaves were to be brought in front a judge with evidence supporting
the claim that the slave it is their property. This is significant as it demonstrates
the threat felt by Southerners and their needs to protect Southern way of life
and protect their interest as slavery. Moreover, Ira Berlin, Generations of
captivity pg.128 depicts the treatment of black people as a result from
Northerners pressure, through its statement of slaves “struggling to enlarge
wartime gains” through planters attempt to “reassert old order”. This is
essentially in reference to the white supremacists parliamentary groups such as
Red Shirts in Mississippi and Caroline as well as the White League in Louisiana
who in common both wanted to enable the Democrats back to power and prohibit
freemen from voting and engaging in civil rights. This is important as it shows
how the Missouri compromise changed the operation of Southerners through its


Ira Berlin born 1941 is an American historian as well as an
University Professor at the University of Maryland , making his piece very
valuable considering his extensive knowledge on American history . His
comprehensive understanding is reflective on that Berlin received a Ph.D. from
the Universtiy of Wisconsin Madison in 1970 as well as his written pieces on
American history and the larger Atlantic world in the 18th and 19th century,
highlighting the credibility of his work due to the intensive knowledge he has
in regards to American history and factors regarding the emancipation process
of slavery. The piece ‘The long emancipation’ was written in 15th September
2015 , years after gaining his Ph.D and finishing his thorough work on other books
regarding slavery. This suggest the book was written when in terms of intellect
, Berlin had a more firm understanding on slavery as whole especially during a
time period whereby other primary documents emerged in reference to slavery.
This is particularly evident through Berlins piece “Remembering” which is
essentially a book and tape set that incorporated the voices of people who had
been slaves. This emphasis the authencity of Berlins work, thus highlighting
its value as whole in understanding the framework of slavery.

In conclusion, the cotton gin invention essentially created
the foundation for installation of fears by 
as it simultaneously brought prosperity for the South whilst generating
potential downfall for the North in regards to their view. Prior to cotton gin,
slavery was favored to die out as seen in George Washington letter who wrote
devoutly about his wish for some plan to be adopted “by which slavery may be
abolished by slow, sure, and imperceptible degrees.” Although, aboltionists and
acts against slavery did continue even during cotton gin boom , the Missouri
compromise effectively proved the hopes of slavery dying out wrong through
placing a focus on slavery once again and intensified the fears of Northerners
created by “King Cotton”.The Missouri crisis probed an enormously problematic
area of American politics that would explode in a civil war. Although the
missouri compromise was a temporary solution the current slavery issue that
prevailed, the controversy and political instability it created , evoked fears
within a number of abolitionists, particulary Thomas Jefferson who in his
private letter to John holmes on the 22nd of April 182029 described the
compromise as ‘The Knell of the Union’. Thomas Jefferson felt the divisions in
the country whereby the Missouri compromise heightened would eventually lead
the downfall of the Union. The Missouri compromise had massive effect on the
political stability of the country as the disputes evoked regarding the powers
of Congress and the states , and as debates heated up , democratic republicans
slowly turnt back to their old sovereignty principles. The Missouri Compromise
marks the beginning of the Antebellum Period of US History (1820-1860) because
it had to do with both slavery and westward expansion – two of the most
important themes of this period.  Over
time, as Northern abolitionists denounced slavery and slaveholders, Southern
elites would move away from Jefferson’s view of slavery as a necessary evil to
a view of slavery as a positive good. 
The slavery issue – especially concerning the expansion of slavery –
would become the most contentious issue in the sectional debates of the
Antebellum period