Module 1 Summative Paper
Chapter one begins with a brief summation of how the early political thinkers were struggling with how to organize a new, big democracy. The articles of confederation were already in place but there were some issues with the articles. States reigned supreme and congress was operating at minimum as a legislature and more as a convention of state ambassadors who did not have any power. The articles set up a type of civil service whose direct report was to the committees of the Continental Congress. The Continental Congress had authority over the civil service through the articles.
We learned that six out of 10 Americans believe it is more important for government to provide freedom to pursue individual goals. Many people do not trust the government and they believe that they are often up to their own agendas. Many people believe that government officials are affected by special interest money, they are out of touch with their careers and are not connected to regular people. Elected officials earn the highest ranking for distrust. Many executives believe that there is a problem with our government and that it is not performing the way that it should be performing.
Many people feel that the government and bureaucracy are failing because it is not totally democratic, it is not honest, and it is lacking in its ability to carry out specific tasks. Public Administrators have found that for good government to reign it must be uncorrupted. It must be composed of honest people who elect honest people. It must be democratic. That is because democracy reaches universally to all cultures and is universally accepted around the world. Good government must be able or competent. A government must know how to manage well and there are proven facts that a government who manages well has people who have higher incomes and the government has higher economic growth rates. That is why it is important for people to be able to trust their government. When the government is trusted, it can rule over the economy in a better manner and when the people trust the government, they are more prone to be optimistic and to allow the bureaucrats to make rules and policies to govern the citizens more effectively.
When citizens do not trust the government then constraint can arise. This causes strain on the government as it cannot rule effectively. Because of the distrust, public laws that should be enforced are not. Many policies and rules enacted are vetoed because of the effect that it would have on the citizens. Thomas Jefferson was a president who never vetoed any laws but reigned well with foreign affairs. Constraints hobble governmental growth. American government does not grow as fast and as big as government in other countries and in other cultures. We as citizens should take the constraints off government to allow them to reign effectively if they are competent, honest and Democratic.
There has long been a problem with being able to control state government. Although many people feel that public agencies are not available and willing to help, they try to help assist in any way possible. Many agencies help the people that they want to help or if they know someone, they will try to help them first when they walk through the door. Many people feel that bureaucracies have too many rules and regulations to follow and for most people, the idea of having to tell your business in a courtroom full of people would just deter them away from applying for help with public services. There is a lot of paperwork that they have fill out and bring in to the bureaucracy. They also need their bank statements and burial contracts, life insurance policies, and contribution statements from anyone that may give them financial assistance. It really does get personal. Everything is kept confidential and is filed away very securely according to government standards. Sometimes the rules of the public states and bureaucracy can deter many applicants from applying for certain government services.
There are six paradigms of public administration. Paradigm 1 begins with President Woodrow Wilson who is considered as the founder of Public administration. In 1914 the first graduate program in public administration was formed. The university of Michigan placed the course in its Political Science program and it took off from there. It became a tradition for other schools to place the program in their college of Political Science Department. It was said in the founding days of public administration that the dichotomy written by Frank J. Goodnow, named Politics and Administration published in 1900 and widely used from 1900-1926 described the execution of public policies. The book was later called the politics/administration dichotomy. The dilemma with the dichotomy was that people did not want to believe that public administrators could make policy because the dichotomy stated that public administrators only brought efficiency to the execution of the policy that elected public officials made. It was said that public administrators did not involve themselves in politics.
Paradigm 2 began in 1927-1937 W. F Willoughby wrote a book entitled Principles of Public Administration His book focused on public administrators and their effectiveness. The book stated that public administrators would be more effective if they brought a scientific approach into politics. Public Administration thrived during this period. This was due solely because of the Rockefeller family who were very wealthy and they gave millions of dollars to the field and its philanthropists who researched the field and by 1937 a new understanding of the field emerged. There was still dilemma with the founding of the principles of administration because for every principle there was a contradiction to each principle. There needed to be some stability to the principles.
Paradigm 3 and 4 began in 1950 and lasted through 1970. This period began as a mission to establish the link between public administration and political science. The public administration lost their vision and groped for answers. Political scientists were kind enough to take the public administration under their wing for a steep price. Over 10 years, 4 percent of all published articles in 5 top journals dealt with public administrations. Before public administrators, the opinions were based off the political scientist. Public administrators began searching for an alternative. Which was founded in management.
Paradigm 5 came about in 1970 and is still existing today. This period emerged every good thing that came out of the public administrators through management and political science. National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration was created. Public administration declared its independence.
Paradigm 6 began in 1990 and is currently existing. This period is known as the “Sea changes in technology, communication, the global economy, and the power and the role of government”. One quoted we are moving away from government and the government is institutional.
Does governance work? Yes. It does work. Governance works when government knows how to manage well and there are proven facts that a government who manages well has people who have higher incomes and the government has higher economic growth rates. That is why it is important for people to be able to trust their government. Governance works in school districts to boost educational reform. In these economies, people began to get more educated and education and financial aid is funded by the US Department of education. There are a lot of different type of aid programs that a person can qualify for, they just should fill out an application for free student aid. Once the application is complete this bureaucracy will determine how much aid you qualify for. You may be able to qualify for student loans where you can fund your education and pay the government back on a payment plan until the total loan amount has been paid. Governance has also been found to work in gang violence. Focused deterrence is where public officials, schools, social workers, former gang members and members of the community join forces to try to focus on reducing gang violence. This has worked in many areas of society and in one community has brought about a major conviction of a well-known drug market that the police department in that area tried to eliminate many years prior. This is just a few examples to show how governance can work in our country.
Public Administrators would like to see less government in the future. Many Americans are willing to serve the public but they are given negative vibes and are deterred by government. Over the many years, government has made a bad name for itself. This is mostly due to the political side of government and all the turmoil when there is an election. The backbiting and the aggressiveness of the candidates running for political office. This makes it hard for citizens to choose who they think that the best candidate is. Public administrators who graduate already have job s at graduation. Many young people who obtain jobs in the government sector usually change jobs within a few years.
Public Administration stands alone in society. Public Administrators create and implement change for the overall social good of society. Public administrators are known to resist opportunistic gain in society. Most majors in public administration are genuinely aimed at bettering the society in which they live. Betterment starts in the communities that we live in and if the ideas and policies that are set forth in the communities’ work then they are introduced to other cities and communities and it becomes well known for its ability to bring about change in the community. If it brings about change in the community, it should bring about change in a society as well. Public administration is an ever-growing field and more is being learned about it than ever before. Public administration is a rewarding career option for those who would like to help change society.
Module 1 Summative Paper