Muscles –These are occasionally identified as the figure flesh, they are creating below the skin and are organised in an overpass coat down to the bones. Their work is to bond and pull the bones to which they are attached, they frequently deal in clusters touching the bones at a correct direction and exact space.
There are 3 types of muscles
Skeletal muscles are equally recognized as voluntary muscles, it is involved to bones and change part of the skeleton they are prepared to bond and relax by conscious control it has the small size for revival.
start in the heart it forms the majority of the heart wall the heart pumps blood to all part of the body it is an involuntary muscle. Heart muscle is striated the can regenerate under certain condition
Smooth muscles are involuntary muscles they are situated in the barriers of muffled inner construction such as plasma vessels, airways, the gut and the intestine smooth muscles are no striated the have the size to restore when related to other muscles.
Connectives tissue frame and guard muscular tissue. The hypodermic layer or hypodermis, which discrete power from membrane is collected of areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue it offers a path for tensions, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels to arrive and exit muscle .the adipose tissue of the internal layer stores most of the body triglycerides, helps as protecting layer that reduces temperature loss, and keep muscles from physical anguish. Fascia is a thick sheet or broad group of dense unequal connective tissue that outlines the figure wall and limb which care and surrounds muscles and other structures of the body. Fascia lets free energy of muscles, carries nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels and fills seats among muscles. There are three layers of connective tissue spread from the fascia to defend an assert the skeletal muscle the whole muscle is covered in the epimysium and is enclosed by muscle fibres call fascicles EPIMYSIUM, PERIMYSIUM, AND ENDOMYSIUM extend outside the muscle as a ligament .a cord of dense steady connective tissue comprised of similar bundles of collagen characters .it purpose is to assign a muscle to and bone.
The Sliding Filament theory; Throughout muscle contraction, myosin head of the thick filament twitch on the thin fibre, producing the thin filament to slide near the centre of the sarcomere as the thin filament slide the I bands and H zones developed fine and fade when the muscle is constricted. The thin string slide past the dense filament when the myosin head transfers over the sarcomere cuts and increased overlay of thin string the distance of the thin and thick filament do not alter .the sliding of filament and shorting of the sarcomeres, in turn, cause the limitation of the muscle fibres this procedure is called the sliding mechanism of muscle.
Skeletal system; this is made up of bones, tendons, muscle and other connective tissues that alleviate or connect the bones .it upkeep the heaviness of the body
The function of the bones
Support; the Skelton offers a physical structure which upkeeps tissues and soft tissue and offers extra tendons for most muscles.
Protection; The skeleton defends many inner organs from damage bony openings round organs, defend hearth and lungs, the cranial cavity protect the brain.
Movement; most skeletal muscles fasten to bones when muscles diminish they pull bones. Together bones and muscles make a movement.
Mineral homeostasis; bone tissue provides several minerals, particularly calcium and phosphorus on demand bone relief inorganic into the blood to reserve fatal lifeless equilibrium and to transfer the mineral to another part of the body.
Blood cell creation; inside definite bones, a connective tissue called red bone marrow harvest red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelets a method called hemopoiesis. Red bone marrow contains increasing blood cells, adipocytes, fibroblasts and macrophages.it is present in developing bones of the foetus and in some grownup bones like the pelvis.ribs.and sternum
Triglyceride storage yellow bone marrow mostly of adipose cells which stock triglycerides these are organic energy replacement.
Types of bones.
Long bones are longer in extent than width the contain a shaft and a variable number of ends they are frequently curved for strength Most of the limb bones are long bones—for example, the femur, tibia, ulna, and radius. Rejections to this include the patella and the bones of the wrist and ankle.
Short bones are alike in length, and width they are the cube-like shape. For example, the bones of the wrist (carpals) and ankle (tarsals) are short bones
Flat bones are usually a thin guard and provide broad planes for muscle supplement. Examples of flat bones are the sternum (breastbone), ribs, scapulae (shoulder blades), and the roof of the skull
Irregular bones are bones with multiple shapes. These bones may have short, flat, rough, or ridged surfaces. Examples of irregular bones are the vertebrae, hip bones, and several skull bones.
Sesamoid bones are lesser and are similar to a sesame seed. The patellae are sesamoid bones. Sesamoid bones develop inside tendons and can be found near joints at the knees, hands, and feet.
Bones nurture from their ends below normal circumstances bones stop emerging when the owner reaches his or her late teens or early twenties.
Hyaline cartilage – shelters the ends of the bones, halts them rubbing together and engrosses shock.
Epiphysis – the ‘head’ of the bone.
Cancellous bone – soft bone that supplies the red bone marrow; where blood cells are made.
Epiphyseal plate – the area where bones nurture in length.
Diaphysis – the shaft.
Compact bone – solid, dense bone. It gives power to the heavy part of the bone.
Periosteum – a defensive coat where there is no hyaline cartilage. Ligaments and tendons fasten to the periosteum.
Medullary cavity/marrow cavity – contains the yellow bone marrow where the white blood cells are made.
A joint is where two or more bones run into. They are categorised mechanically base on their functional characteristics and functionally based on the type of effort they permit. The physical classification of the joint is built on two conditions 1 the presence or absence of a space among the uttering bones called a synovial cavity 2 the type of connective tissue that holds the bones composed
Fibrous joints there is no synovial cavity and bones are held collected by solid unequal connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibres
Cartilaginous joints there is no synovial hollow and the bones are held calm by cartilage.
Synovial joints the bones have a synovial cavity and are joined by the thick irregular connective tissue.
The functional grouping of joint by the point of effort the permit
Synarthrosis a fixed joint
Amphiarthrosis; A little moveable joint
Diarthrosis; easily movable joint
Types of movement in joint
Gliding movement flat bones move back and forth and side to side
Angular movement there is an alteration in the angle of the among bones example flexion and extension, hyperextension, abduction and circumduction
Rotation bone change around its own axis.
Special effort; occur at specific synovial joints in the body example elevation- depression, protraction-retraction, inversion-eversion, ETC
First class lever; the fulcrum is located between the force and the load like a see-saw example the subsequent neck strength that tilts spinal the head on the cervical vertebrae
Second class lever the load lies among the force and the fulcrum .erect on tip-toes the calf muscles deliver the force the heel and foot from the lever and the toes offer the fulcrum
Third class lever; the force is applied among load and fulcrum an example is bending the elbow joint by tightening the biceps bacchii muscle.
How muscles work in pairs
Muscle can pull not push so they are position in pairs that act in resistance to one another .the effort produced by one muscle can be overturned by its differing partner when a muscle contract to yield movement it called agonist opposed partner is called antagonist, eases and inactively pushed in truth few efforts is allow in single muscle tightening. The whole team of muscle act as agonists to give the exact required degree and route of motion while antagonist tense to stop the movement over-extending.
Bending the elbow; the principal agonist is the bicep bacchii muscle which runs from the scapula to the radius bone in the lower arm
Straightening the elbow; the biceps bacchii reduce and the triceps bacchii on the contrary side attached at its lower end to the ulna contracts .it is aided by the anconeous muscle.
The process of ossification permits bones to form even if a foetus is still in the womb. This happens in four sources 1 creation of bone in an embryo and foetus 2 the development of bone through infancy, childhood, and youth until their grownup 3 changing of bone 4 the mended of fracture throughout life. The first creation of bone in an embryo and foetus .the developing skeleton is at first composed of mesenchyme formed like bones these are the site where ossification which starts in the sixth week of pregnancy and shadow one or two form.
Intra-membranous ossification is also known as mesenchyme ossification since ossification is from inside the membrane they are organised in a sheet-like coating that look like a membrane. This is the simpler of the two procedures of bones formation the flat bones of the skull, most of the facial bones, mandible and part of the clavicle are formed this way .intramembranous ossification which as
The growth of the ossification centre
Formation of trabecular
Development of the periosteum.
The other type of ossification is called endochondral ossification most bones of the body are form in this way this types of ossification is best detected in long bones
Development of the cartilage model
The growth of the cartilage model.
Development of primary ossification centre
Development of the medullary cavity.
Both of these kinds of ossification form bones concluded cells known as osteoblasts. These are bone-forming cells that hide collagen and other complexes to form the powdered substance of the bone. These cells are created at sites in the body well-known as centres of ossification. Main centres of ossification form during fatal life, while secondary centres of ossification appearance after birth to change bones during childhood and adulthood. Bones are totally ossified at the age of 21 years
Remodelling this is the constant addition of old bones material by new bones tissue.it includes bone resorption, the exclusion of mineral deposits and collagen fibres from bone by osteoclasts, and bone removal, the addition of mineral deposits and collagen appeal to the bone by osteoblast The method in which matrix is resorbed on one surface of a bone and placed on usual is known as bone modelling. .modernising proceeds in different place at different rates and in new region of the body even after boned have got their adult shapes and size old bones repeatedly extinguish and new bones is made in its place remodelling also eradicate damaged bone and exchange it with a new bone tissue .this can because by workout, lifestyle and variation of in diet
Arthritis ; this is a communal term used to define several diverse conditions that harm joint causing pain, swelling and limited effort .the most common sickness in this set is osteoarthritis which is spread amongst older people Rheumatoid swelling can happen at any age ,as well as childhood but typically begins at the age of 40 years