NAME: SAIRA PERVEZ
ROLL NO: 17190856-013
CLASS: Msc IT (3rd SEMESTER)
SUBMITTED TO: SIR BILAL
Evolution Of Software Interfaces
Command line interface
Command line is an effective way to check the computer in 1950.previously command is given to computer using punch card or paper tape. Teletype machine that is used for telegraph transmissions and user adapted to change the command via processor and take feedback from computer in real time.
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User face difficulty to use CLI, because that is not familiar with command
Users have a bit control over OS. We can copy several files with one command.
CLI provide less resources then GUI.
In command line interface, multitasking is possible for user but do not provide efficiency like GUI.
Graphical user interface
In the 1980, today mostly people use graphical user interface. People click any icon instead of typing command. People can use easily. It can provide effective feedback. The example of GUI is window. In GUI the user interact with devices instead of typing command.
Mostly all beginners use GUI because it is faster than CLI.
GUI provide lot of access to files, and software feature
GUI require resources such as loading, icon font video
Windows enable the user to control and perform multiple task at the same time.
• Was released in November 1985
• Use graphical user interface
• Depend on mouse control, not the keyboard
• Introduced in December 1987.
• Ability to minimize and maximize windows.
• Also include Microsoft Word and Excel.
• Released in 1990 required a hard drive
• Ability to run MS-DOS.
• It introduced the card-moving time sink and mouse.
• Released in August 1995 with Start button and Start menu.
• Introduced the concept of plug and play.
• Also introduced a 32-bit environment and focused on multitasking.
• Windows 2000 was released in February 2000.
• Based on Microsoft’s business-orientated system.
• Windows to support hibernation.
• Released in October 2001.
• Introduced Microsoft’s enterprise line and consumer line of operating systems.
• Introduced green Start button and blue task bar with various shadow.
• Its biggest problem was security
• Released in January 2007.
• Improve search and security.
• Also included speech recognition.
• First released in October 2009.
• Include user-friendly features and less “dialogue box overload”.
• Faster, more stable and easier to use
• Allowing faster automatic window resizing.
• Allowing user to choose, which browser to install on first boot.
• Released in October 2012
• Introduce touch keyboard and mouse.
• Faster than previous versions of Windows.
• Support faster USB 3.0 devices.
• Offers universal Windows apps that run in a full-screen mode only.
• There were also too few touch screens in use.
• Released in 30 September 2014.
• Ability to switch between a keyboard and mouse and a tablet mode.
• Universal apps can be downloaded from the Windows Store and run on all Windows devices.
Evolution of Hardware Interfaces
First Generation of computer
The first computer was developed in1942, the first generation computers used vacuum tube everyone cannot purchase these computers because the material is expensive.
• User given input through punch card
• Magnetic tape is a storage media
• The computers of this generation require air condition room because the vacuum tubes get hot and burn out.
• Maintenance problem
These are the example of first generation computers is are
Second generation of computer
Second generation computers are introduced in 1947, . These are used in second generation computer.
The big change is replacing vacuum tube in transistor. These computers less expensive and smaller then first generation. Second generation had a high processing speed these computer use symbolic language and high level language. Such as COBOL, FORTRAN. Example of
• IBM 7094
• IBM 1400
• The problem in these computers is maintenance.
Third generation of computer
Third generation was made by JAK in 1958.First computer of this generation used in 1961. IC used in these computers. Types of these computers UNIVAC1108, IBM370
• These are smaller in size
• High level language use in this computer
• User given input via disk, tap
• Used for business and storage is magnetic core memory
• This generation of computer increased performance
• Reliable and fast computer
• ICs are worldly-wise
Fourth generation computer
The concept of microprocessor was developed in 1971. Fourth generation computers started with the invention of microprocessors it revolutionized the computer world. New micro processors are less than one square inch. There are few types of Apple, Dell
• Main components are integrated circuit.
• Fourth generation computer production is less expensive.
• User given input and output through devices. These are used in digital weight machines
These computers are not artificial intelligence
Now present computer
These computers are based on artificial intelligence, are still in advanced stage.
Today we use different types
• Laptop , Smartphone , tablet , notebook
• These computers much smaller and handy while traveling
• User given input touch and devices
• These computer are very fast and cheaper
• Silicon chip