Name: to eat, they decide to steal. Also,

Name: Abdalrhman AbdalmjeadID:201805924Date:16-10-2018The Effects of PovertyNowadays many countries in this world suffer from poverty. The number of people who live under the poverty line is increasing in dramatically rate. Destitution extends over the globe influencing half of the total populace. Poverty affects their live and causes a lot of problems. The three main effects of poverty are; diseases, an increasing crime rate, and illiteracy.The first and most worrying effect of poverty is the spread of diseases. In countries that suffer from poverty, such as African countries, people live in remote and polluted areas, and they suffer from a scarcity of clean water. Also, they live in densely populated areas, so resources can wound up scarcer since problems with food security as pressure on the land due to larger population multiplication.

All these reasons help diseases to spread quickly, and these diseases eliminates millions of Africa.The second effect of poverty is an increasing crime rate. For example, when people do not have enough food to eat, they decide to steal. Also, the murder rates will increase because of struggles in the job market.

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Furthermore, the sale of drugs will go upwards in these countries because people cannot find stable many source so, they will resort to illegal substance, and this will destroy the country.Finally, another problem cause by poverty is illiteracy. To illustrate, there are unsuitable places for children to study because the lake of funding from the government.

They study in small and unclean places. Moreover, schools do not have enough materials and resources to properly educate children. Furthermore, a child may have to leave school to work and help his father raise money, and help his family provide food.

To sum up, poverty is a huge problem and causes a lot of problems such as diseases, an increasing crime rate, and illiteracy. I think we should he these countries to solve this ordeal.312

NAME: less resources then GUI. Multitasking In command

NAME: SAIRA PERVEZ ROLL NO: 17190856-013 CLASS: Msc IT (3rd SEMESTER) SUBMITTED TO: SIR BILALEvolution Of Software InterfacesCommand line interfaceCommand line is an effective way to check the computer in 1950.previously command is given to computer using punch card or paper tape.

Teletype machine that is used for telegraph transmissions and user adapted to change the command via processor and take feedback from computer in real time. DifficultUser face difficulty to use CLI, because that is not familiar with commandControlUsers have a bit control over OS. We can copy several files with one command.ResourcesCLI provide less resources then GUI.MultitaskingIn command line interface, multitasking is possible for user but do not provide efficiency like GUI.Graphical user interface In the 1980, today mostly people use graphical user interface. People click any icon instead of typing command.

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People can use easily. It can provide effective feedback. The example of GUI is window. In GUI the user interact with devices instead of typing command.EaseMostly all beginners use GUI because it is faster than CLI.

ControlGUI provide lot of access to files, and software featureResourcesGUI require resources such as loading, icon font video MultitaskingWindows enable the user to control and perform multiple task at the same time.Windows 1 • Was released in November 1985 • Use graphical user interface • Depend on mouse control, not the keyboardWindows 2 • Introduced in December 1987. • Ability to minimize and maximize windows.• Also include Microsoft Word and Excel.Windows 3 • Released in 1990 required a hard drive• Ability to run MS-DOS.• It introduced the card-moving time sink and mouse.

Windows 95 • Released in August 1995 with Start button and Start menu.• Introduced the concept of plug and play.• Also introduced a 32-bit environment and focused on multitasking.Windows 2000 • Windows 2000 was released in February 2000.

• Based on Microsoft’s business-orientated system.• Windows to support hibernation.Windows XP • Released in October 2001.

• Introduced Microsoft’s enterprise line and consumer line of operating systems.• Introduced green Start button and blue task bar with various shadow.• Its biggest problem was securityWindows Vista• Released in January 2007.

• Improve search and security. • Also included speech recognition. Windows 7 • First released in October 2009. • Include user-friendly features and less “dialogue box overload”.• Faster, more stable and easier to use• Allowing faster automatic window resizing.• Allowing user to choose, which browser to install on first boot.

Windows 8 • Released in October 2012 • Introduce touch keyboard and mouse.• Faster than previous versions of Windows.• Support faster USB 3.0 devices. • Offers universal Windows apps that run in a full-screen mode only.• There were also too few touch screens in use.Windows 10 • Released in 30 September 2014.• Ability to switch between a keyboard and mouse and a tablet mode.

• Universal apps can be downloaded from the Windows Store and run on all Windows devices.Evolution of Hardware InterfacesFirst Generation of computerThe first computer was developed in1942, the first generation computers used vacuum tube everyone cannot purchase these computers because the material is expensive.• User given input through punch card• Magnetic tape is a storage mediaDisadvantage • The computers of this generation require air condition room because the vacuum tubes get hot and burn out.• Maintenance problem These are the example of first generation computers is are• ENIAC• UNIVAC-1Second generation of computer Second generation computers are introduced in 1947, . These are used in second generation computer.

The big change is replacing vacuum tube in transistor. These computers less expensive and smaller then first generation. Second generation had a high processing speed these computer use symbolic language and high level language. Such as COBOL, FORTRAN. Example of• IBM 7094• IBM 1400Disadvantage• The problem in these computers is maintenance.Third generation of computerThird generation was made by JAK in 1958.First computer of this generation used in 1961. IC used in these computers.

Types of these computers UNIVAC1108, IBM370• These are smaller in size• High level language use in this computer• User given input via disk, tap• Used for business and storage is magnetic core memoryAdvantage• This generation of computer increased performance• Reliable and fast computerDisadvantage• ICs are worldly-wise Fourth generation computerThe concept of microprocessor was developed in 1971. Fourth generation computers started with the invention of microprocessors it revolutionized the computer world. New micro processors are less than one square inch. There are few types of Apple, Dell Advantage • Main components are integrated circuit.

• Fourth generation computer production is less expensive.• User given input and output through devices. These are used in digital weight machinesDisadvantageThese computers are not artificial intelligenceNow present computerThese computers are based on artificial intelligence, are still in advanced stage.Today we use different types• Laptop , Smartphone , tablet , notebook• These computers much smaller and handy while travelingFeatures• User given input touch and devices• These computer are very fast and cheaper• Silicon chip Disadvantage• NoneReferencehttps://zanyasp2.weebly.com/a-new-era-of-computers-and-computer-generations-1-5.htmlhttps://www.technologyreview.com/…/the-best-computer-interfaces-past-present-and-f…https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/oct/02/from-windows-1-to-windows-10-29-years-of-windows-evolution

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