## NAMIBIA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

NAMIBIA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL POWER, ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION
SYSTEMS MODELLING 313 (SYM710S).

PROJECT PROPOSAL
PROJECT TITLE: MAGNETIC LEVITATION.

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PREPARED BY:
GROUP 7 MEMBERS:
1. GOSEB D.G 216000076
2. KAWANA I.215057090
3. PETRUS W. 215061543
4. SAWYER. G.G. 213014548
5. UUPINDI M.P.S 215069706
PREPARED FOR:
LECTURER NAME: TULIPALE KAPUTU
EMAIL: [email protected] DUE: 16/04/2018
TABLE OF CONTENT
COVER PAGE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
TABLE OF CONTENT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….2
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3
OBJECTIVE(S)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
MOTIVATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
WORK PLAN………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5
LITERATURE RIVIEW……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
LIST OF COMPONENTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…..8
BUDGET………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8
CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..9
BLIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10

INTRODUCTION
Magnetic levitation is a technique of suspending an object in mid-air without any physical support. The technique uses a magnetic field to achieve this. A simple way to think of levitation by this technique is by positioning two permanent magnets of similar polarity (because like poles repel and vice versa) in such a way that their respective magnetic fields oppose each other and hence keep the object which is subjected to this fields (a ferromagnetic object) in mid-air. Similarly, the same can be done with an electromagnet where the control element will be the current passing through the coil of the electromagnet.
There are two types of maglev. Electromagnetic levitation (EML) uses the attractive force between electromagnets on the levitated object and the circuit on the ground. Electrodynamic levitation makes use of the repulsive force between magnets (superconductive magnets) on the levitated object and induced current in the secondary circuit on the ground. Thus, we may classify magnetic levitation systems into two groups: attractive systems and repulsive systems. The former is referred to as electromagnetic suspension while the latter is referred to as electrodynamic suspension. In an attractive system, the moving component, or carrier, is suspended under the fixed component, or guide track.
The attractive system uses feedback control, is complicated, and requires power to levitate a carrier. The repulsive system utilizes permanent magnets and air-core electromagnet coils running constant current to provide repulsive force. It has a simple configuration and does not require power to levitate a carrier.

Figure 1: Levitation achieved with an electromagnet.

Magnetic Levitation has many applications such as maglev train systems, contactless melting, magnetic bearings, and for displaying purposes in various retail shops.

Figure 2: Magnetic levitation applied to a railway transportation system.

OBJECTIVES
The main objective of this project is to design and implement a magnetic levitation system capable of levitating various ferromagnetic objects that is consistent with the knowledge of electromagnetism together with the control switching application. The hardware should successfully demonstrate the concept of magnetic levitation by suspending an object in mid-air with a magnetic field. The project will be demonstrated using various simulation software such as Matlab to give a brief overview on how the project will work. After the theoretical aspect of the project has been achieved, the students responsible for the project will then build the model and showcase it to a panel.

MOTIVATION
The need for highly efficient, super-fast transportation will rise with the eventual increase in human population over the next few decades. People will need to get to paces faster. Businesses will need to transport their goods and services faster to remote destinations and engineers will need to design working systems to make this a reality. One way to achieve this dream is to design a system with minimal losses in terms of energy. Magnetic levitation offers frictionless transportation and can be implemented in railway systems for super-fast transport of people and goods to their places of work and business. Magnetic trains are capable of reaching speeds of up to 500 Km/h, are generally faster than conventional trains and can also sustain their top speeds with minimal wind resistance.
Finding the best solution with minimal cost to a problem is what engineering is all about and the students of this group has that mind when approaching this project. This project will include significant elements such as the micro controller design, digital signal processing, control theory, project management and mechanical design. A number of techniques from various fields will be integrated together to construct the magnetic levitation system. Our experiences are based mainly on simulating mathematical models with the help of Matlab and in this project, we will translate the mathematical models into a physical model. This project on magnetic levitation will focus mainly on the system design, which covers the mechanical, hardware, electrical, software design, at a possible minimal cost.

WORK PLAN
The work that will be required to complete the project will be distributed equally amongst the group members. As stated in the Work Breakdown document, the mechanical students of the group will focus more on the mechanical aspect of the project such as CAD drawings, schematics, and physical modelling of the project. The Electrical guys will handle the electrical aspect of the project such as the electrical circuit design, the Matlab code, and the simulation of the project in an electronic simulation software package. The Matlab code will be written and inspected by all members of the group. The draft project proposal, the final report and PowerPoint presentation will also be the responsibility of the entire group members.
The physical implementation of the project will be the toughest task. It will require some monetary input as the hardware that will be needed to build the project. After the purchase of the components have been completed, the group members will meet up on several occasions in a workshop area to assemble the project and conduct several tests before the project is to be presented to a panel.

DETAILED TABLE OUTLINING WORK RESPONSIBLITIES
SPECIFIC WORK TO BE DONE. PERSON RESPONSIBLE EXPECTED COMPLETION DATE. SIGNATURE OF PERSON RESPONSIBLE.

1. RESEARCH AND GENERAL PROJECT DATA GATHERING. EVERY GROUP MEMBER. 6/04/2018 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

2. COMPONENTS NEEDED AND RESPECTIVE COSTS.

EVERY GROUP MEMBER. 13/04/2018 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

3. MATLAB CODE. GOSEB D.G 216000076 16/04/2018 1.

4. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DRAWINGS. SAWYER. G.G. 213014548 16/04/2018 1.

5. MECHANICAL DRAWINGS/SCHEMATICS OF PROJECT. KAWANA I.215057090 16/04/2018 1.

6. MODELING EQUATIONS. UUPINDI M.P.S 215069706 16/04/2018 1.

7. PROPOSAL PPT FINALISING AND REPORT DRAFTING. PETRUS W. 215061543 16/04/2018 1.

LITERATURE REVIEW
Ugur Hasirci, Abdulkadir Balikci, Zivan Zabar, Senior Member, IEEE, and Leo Birenbaum, Senior Member, IEEE (2011, January, 1). A Novel Magnetic-Levitation System: Design, Implementation, and Nonlinear Control. Retrieved from https://www.ieee.com/150052/archive-read/maglev In this paper Ugur Hasirci, Abdulkadir Balikci, Zivan Zabar and Leo Birenbaum examined the design, implementation, and nonlinear velocity-tracking control of a novel magnetic-levitation (maglev) system for magnetically levitated trains. The proposed system uses only one tubular linear induction motor to produce three forces required in a maglev system: propulsion, levitation, and guidance. Classical maglev systems, on the other hand, contain a separate force-generating system to build each of these three forces. Another benefit that the proposed system offers is that there is no need to control the guidance, and particularly, the levitation forces, one of the most challenging tasks in maglev systems. The system always centers the moving part during operation and eliminates the necessity for control of the levitation and guidance forces.

Wong, T.H. (1986, November, 4). Design of a Magnetic Levitation Control System Undergraduate Project. Retrieved from: https://www.ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1649010/In this paper, the author looks at the classroom execution of a magnetic levitation system for an engineering control system course. The author uses the systems dynamic equations to analyse and outline the behaviour of the system. He also makes a very important conclusion as to how using eddy current magnetic repulsive force is less efficient in terms of energy and that the usage of the electromagnetic attractive force is preferred.

Thornton, R.D. (1973, May, 5). Design principles for Magnetic Levitation. Retrieved from
https://www.ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1746014/In this paper, the author derives the general relations and limitations pertinent to the design of an inductive magnetic suspension system. He further shows how in order to reduce magnetic drag, we must increase the vehicle filed and reduce the gateway currents.

Sadiku, M.N.O. and Kujuobi C.M. (2006, April). Magnetic Levitation.

In this paper, the authors explain the basics of magnetic levitation in the general sense. They talk about the different types of levitation systems, their merits and demerits and their respective design procedures in the brought sense.

LIST OF COMPONENTS
1. HALL EFFECT SENSOR

2. ELECTROMAGNET.

3. IRLZ44N MOSFET.

4. TC4420 MOSFET.

5. PCB TERMINALS.

6. UF4007 DIODE.

7. OTHER (UNSPECIFIED)
BUDGET
1. HALL EFFECT SENSORS – N\$ 150.00
2. ELECTROMAGNET – N\$ 200.00
3. IRLZ44N MOSFET -N\$ 50.00
4. TC4420 MOSFET- N\$ 50.00
5. PCB TERMINALS – N\$ 100.00
6. UF4007 DIODE – N\$ 50.00
7. 7. OTHER (UNSPECIFIED EXPENSES) – N\$100
TOTAL ESTIMATE: N\$ 700.00
CONCLUSION
The topic of magnetic levitation is indeed an exciting one and one that the students of this group look forward to working with and learning about. However it will require a lot of effort from all members of this group to make it work in terms of planning, modelling and finally building it. The students will have to become familiar with the technical details of the topic at hand from the dynamic modelling equations to the coding of it in Matlab as well other simulation software packages.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.  Ugur Hasirci, Abdulkadir Balikci, Zivan Zabar, Senior Member, IEEE, and Leo Birenbaum, Senior Member, IEEE (2011, January, 1). A Novel Magnetic-Levitation System: Design, Implementation, and Nonlinear Control. Retrieved from https://www.ieee.com/150052/archive-read/maglev
2. L. Yan, “Development and application of Maglev transportation system,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 92–99, Jun. 2008.