OLUWASEGUN behaviour using positive and negative reinforcement.

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comMODULE ONE ASSIGNMENT TWO Question1Learning is a process where experience brings about permanent changes in behaviour or attitudes.Use examples to explain the behaviourist model of conditioning.Develop one cognitive theory of the learning process and comment on how it might assist the manager to change attitudes.

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Answer1Using examples to explain the behaviourist model of conditioning Example 1: Ringing a bell before giving a dog food will gradually make the dog associate the bell with food. This a typical example of Classical Conditioning which looks at using stimulus to stimulate the sense while introducing desired attributes or thing that need to be learnt. Example 2: A parent rewarding a child’s excellent grades buying him a new bike while collecting the phone of the other for his bad grade is a good example of Operant conditioning which is the process that attempts to modify behaviour using positive and negative reinforcement. In the case of the example given, the reward of a new bike is positive reinforcement while collecting the phone of the other is negative reinforcement.Develop one cognitive theory of the learning process and comment on how it might assist the manager to change attitudes.

The cognitive theory of learning process argues the attainment of organisational objective by conditioning workers through stimulation, reward and penalty can be very counterproductive. This theory argues that cognitive factors must be taken into account to understand how people learn not only by association rewards but by ensuring they have sizable knowledge of their results through a feedback procedure, ensuing that the workers are part of the decision-making process which allows them to know what is expected of them. This makes the workers develop a sense of ownership to the overall objective of the organisation. In relations to the question I will suggest that if a manager follows the basic principle of cognitive theory as explained here, by removing feedback communication barriers, allowing workers to be part of the decision-making process which may affect their work either directly or indirectly. Operate an open-door policy that allows workers to make suggestions on operational matters, then the attitude of workers to their job will change. Question2What was the Scientific Management view of motivation?Answer 2The scientific management view of motivation is encapsulated in the phrase ‘a fair day’s wage for a fair day’s work’. A phase invariably was used to motivate workers to work harder, was postulated by Taylor.

This declared that work should be broken down into tasks and that by using a scientific method to find the most efficient way of performing each job, i.e. resources required to perform the job efficient, while reducing them to a series of routine, predictable and standardised tasks. Assuming that money is the major motivating factor workers and it being an incentive that would increase work productivity, Taylor introduced payment on a piecework basis. This formed the foundation for the benefit and reward system of the workplace as we have it today along with other factors which motivates workers in the workplace.Question3Compare and contrast one ‘content (need)’ theory and one ‘process’ theory of motivation.Answer 3To answer this question, I will examine Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and Expectancy theory.Similarities In comparing the two theories one will observe that Maslow theory created the foundation from which expectancy theory was developed.

A closer look at both theories informs that both enables a person to modify his/her input in relations to how importance to him/her the expected result after performing a task is, they also allow an individual to establish which results are most likely to motivate them or others. DifferencesMaslow’s hierarchy of needs theory has greater motivation to employees compared to the expectancy theory. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory of motivation is more realistic and cheaper in motivating compared to expectancy theory of motivation.In carrying out a task, Expectancy theory focusses on the needs rather than the results while Maslow’s theory focuses on how the different needs relate with each other, what is required to satisfy them to get the expected result. Expectancy theory separates effort, performance and accomplishment of task, this makes it difficult for many individuals to explore their potentials because the effort to undertake a task will relate to the surrounding and capability to dictate the resulting achievement/performance of a person. Question4As a production supervisor in a large garment manufacturing business you have been asked to write a report outlining possible approaches to overcoming low morale in the workplace.

Your report should cover the following aspects:(a) Definitions of high morale, low morale and alienation at work(b) The consequences associated with low morale and alienation(c) Your guiding principles for job design to improve morale amongst garment workers(d) A summary of possible job design approaches to improve morale in the garment businessAnswer4 David was known to be a lad full of energy and his naturally positive aura which makes people around him better versions of themselves. This characteristic was my deciding factor when he asked to join my team. I was so delighted at the result of his designs on our garment production and use his designs, after consulting with the garment production workers, as models while rewarding each outcome accordingly. This promoted high productivity of the organizations garment production and thus the profit margin of the organisation at large.

However, five months into joining the garment production team, David became a shadow of himself and he informed me that he wants to quit his role in the team. This was very dishearten. I tried all reinforcement tactics that I knew to get him back to his best, but none worked. So, I decided to have a heart-to-heart conversation with him.

He resisted at first, but later confided in me that some of the team members where bullying him thus his withdrawal, willingness to keep to himself and his occasional absenteeism from work. We discussed how he can get his confidence back and laid down a plan to catch the culprits. The plan was successful, and the culprits were dealt with according to the policy of the organisation. David became better version of himself and the team learnt a valuable lesson from the incident.

In a report to management on who to curtail events that may affect the morale of workers in the further, I defined High morale as the state which exists when employee attitudes are favourable to the total situation of a group and to the attainment of its objective siting examples of the impact we enjoyed which laid to increase productivity and profit level in the case my garment production team.Low morale as a state that exists when attitude inhibit the willingness and ability of an organization to attain its objectives reference to my earlier illustration.Alienation at work as the process whereby the worker is made to feel foreign to the products of his/her own labour, reference to the story of David.I reported the consequences associated with low morale and alienation as employees’ disaffection to their Job, occasional absenteeism from work, high cost turnover, low productivity and profitability rates not forgetting high staff attrition rate.

Then I suggested the following guiding principles for job design to improve workers morale Job rotation which involves moving worker from one assigned task to another at regular intervals. This action ensures that workers are relieved of the monotonous aspects of job specialization.Job enlargement; which expands the tasks performed by employees to add more variety. This is achieved by ensuring that the garment workers have several different tasks to be performed, this will invariably reduce boredom and monotony as well as utilize human resources more effectively.

Job enrichment; which is a job design technique that allows workers more control over how they perform their own tasks while taking on more responsibility. Explaining the believe that, using job enrichment method for the garment production workers the will ensure that the organisation experience positive outcomes, such as reduced turnover, increased productivity, and reduced absences.The following is a summary of possible job design approaches to improve morale in the garment business are as follows.Human ApproachThe human approach of job design laid emphasis on designing a job around the people or employees and not around the organizational processes. This approach recognises the need of designing jobs that are rewarding and interesting. This approach argued that jobs should give high preference to gratify an individual’s need for recognition, respect, growth and responsibility.

A good example of this approach is Job enrichment which was popularized by Herzberg’s research and classified into two categories – the hygiene factors i.e. working condition, salary etc and the motivators i.e. achievement, work nature, responsibility, learning and growth etc.

Engineering ApproachAccording to this job design approach, which is based on the application of scientific principles to job design, the task to be performed by each employee is planned by the employer a day in advance. The instructions which includes; what the task is, how the task is to be performed and when along with the time deadlines are sent to each employee. The approach also lays due emphasis on compensating employees appropriately and training them continuously for work efficiency.The Job Characteristics ApproachThe job characteristics approach was popularized by Hackman and Oldham who argued that there is a direct relationship between job satisfaction and rewards.

The approach explained that employees will be their productive best and be committed to the job when they are rewarded appropriately for their work. The approach laid down five core dimensions that can be used to describe any job as; skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback.