Regulation is defined as rules or orders of conduct that are arranged by an authority in order to set requirements or prohibitions of specific actions or behaviours by the public for purposes of health, safety and environment.
These regulations are set forth towards the individuals, organizations and communities in an area through an on-going administrative process and generally include regulatory agencies that are specially designated for such aim. These regulatory frameworks encompass legal and semi-legal tools and instruments such as policy documents, customary traditions, planning, building and financial regulations, as well as standards and procedures related to town planning, building, public health and land development. Government, whether central or local, create regulatory frameworks in order to set parameters for the development for environments of cities and municipalities. In most countries, central governments are mostly responsible for legal and policy frameworks, whilePage | 7local authorities have the powers on urban development. Payne and Majale (2004) specify that because regulatory frameworks have influences on the urban poor and how they can take on their own developments and property titles, it is of importance to have balance between national and local conditions and needs in relation to urban poverty.
The Urban Housing Manual (2004) identifies that regulatory frameworks consist of 3 key elements:Planning Regulations: Are there to instruct what sort of development is allowed to be conducted on urban land. They contain legal and semi-legal instruments including statutory, local, and court rules, council orders, declarations, guidelines, practice codes, and many more. They influence on planning, land use and plot development, and zoning as well as infrastructure services and allocation for space.Planning Standards: These stipulate the level and quality in which all officially accepted lands and plots must conform to.
They include physical requirements for public open spaces, plot size, road widths, and infrastructure provision. Regulations for these depend on official insights of what is considered to be of a minimum level or quality. But a down sight is that standards include costs and these costs aren’t always considered when they are determined by authorities. These standards, no matter how relevant socially and environmentally, they can only be placed if the residences and governments are financially capable.
Administrative Procedures: Specify the official steps that all urban developments are needed to follow in order to be officially acceptable by the central and local governments. These are the ways in which the regulations and standards are imposed and observed and encompass activities ranging from applying to register, transfer or develop housing land, change of land use, obtain building permission and upgrading existing settlements.Regulatory frameworks in regards to various aspects of urban development and housing affect the urban poor in different ways. The ability to access land, housing, credit and services can be influenced by such regulatory requirements.
Because they raise costs, increase risks and impose conditions that are impossible to be satisfied by the urban poor, regulatory frameworks force the urban poor to turn to other forms of unauthorized developments (Informal Settlements).Page | 8The low incomes of many urban poor and the high costs of urban land are an impediment for legal housing in many cities. The spatial requirements included in regulations for urban planning are commonly the main reason for making legal land development impossible for the urban poor. In many cases, they can’t afford the required minimum sizes for plots. Large plot sizes, public open spaces, wide roads cause the raising of land costs and impose higher transport costs on people, which force the urban poor to live in informal settlements.