Religious Spiritual Needs Currently, the term spirituality is used with religion. Religion comes from the Latin word “religare” meaning “to bind together” CITATION Sur10 l 13321 (Surbone & Baider, 2010). It is the observable aspects of people’s spirituality such as beliefs, values and rituals CITATION Peh09 l 13321 (Pehler ; Rosenberg, 2009). Spirituality comes from the Latin word “spiritus” meaning life, breath, wind and air, and can be referred back to the time when God gave life to Adam and Eve CITATION McS00 l 13321 (McSherry, 2000). Spirituality is a complex concept and is define in different ways according to cultural and religious/spiritual needs. Religious spiritual needs are the deep needs of an individual; if he is able to know the needs, then he can act accordingly and find meaning, value, purpose and hope in life even when life is threatened. All people have spiritual needs regardless of religious beliefs or personal philosophies of life CITATION OBr08 l 13321 (O’Brien, 2008).
The spiritual needs of non-religious people are as significant as those of religion-affiliated persons CITATION Sul09 l 13321 (Sulmasy, 2009)In the study of Jana Lynn Wu about Assessing the Benefits of Practicing Spirituality or Religion while Incarcerated: A Study of formerly Incarcerated Men in Texas states that Religion and spirituality can be differentiated in the following way: Walsh (1999b) distinguishes religion as extrinsic, organized faith systems and spirituality as more intrinsic personal beliefs and practices. Walsh further elaborates that religion as an organized belief system, includes shared, and usually institutionalized, moral values, beliefs about God or a Higher Power, and Involvement in a faith community. Particular ideas and practices are often considered to be right or true. In contrast, spirituality can be expressed as “that which connects one to all there is” ((Walsh, 1999a), CITATION Gri99 l 13321 (Griffith & Griffith, 1999)). Walsh explains that one can experience spirituality while being affiliated with a formal religion or spirituality can encompass practices which include traditional healing and a more personal and individual faith outside of organized religious structures (Walsh, 1999b). Spirituality often includes one’s personal moral values as well as their personal way of Expressing their faith ranging from prayer, ritual, chanting, meditation, use of crystals, incense or candles.
In the research study of Marion June Derbyshire “Spiritual Transformation of Imprisoned Boys in the Philippines (2014), talks about Neville Symington and Jon Stokes who develop a theme that distinguish between ‘life-as religion’ and ‘subjective-life spirituality’. In the life as religion, the attention of individuals is directed towards oneself and one’s inner life, rather than directed, as in the former, away from oneself towards something higher CITATION Hee05 l 13321 (Heelas & Woodhead, 2005). Subjective spirituality is manifested in and nurtured by activities that focus attention on the individual and the internal self. Thus, for Heelas and Woodhead, the term ‘spirituality’ relates to meaning and truth that is found in life in the world, as opposed to the term ‘religion’, which expresses commitment to a ‘higher truth’ that lies beyond earthly life and is ‘exclusively related to specific externals’ such as scriptures, dogmas and rituals.
Ole Riis and Linda Woodhead additionally observe that scholars of religion have focused on ‘religions with texts, doctrines, beliefs, and literate male “elites’ and largely neglected forms of religion or ‘spirituality’ concerned with supporting the everyday lives of ordinary people CITATION Rii10 l 13321 (Riis & Woodhead, 2010).