Removal be changed and hence complete packet protection cannot

Removal of these fields makes processing of IPv6 header faster and
improves overall

router performance (Ferry, 2003). Figure 1.1 shows the header structure
of IPv4 and

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Integrated Internet
Protocol security (IPsec): Initially, Internet Protocol was not designed
with security in mind (Kumar et al., 2011) therefore data was not
protected in the IP layer. When data security became a major issue,
different security techniques were developed but implemented in the upper
layers of the protocol suite to protect data from unauthorized access. An
example of this is the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) used to protect web data
in the application layer. Besides SSL, other security technologies exist
for the same purpose. The use of different security technologies in the
upper layers for the same purpose means that security functionality is


To overcome this problem, a new security layer called IPsec was built
into IPv6 to

protect packets in the IP layer. IPsec protects packets by providing

confidentiality, authentication and non–repudiation (Kent et al, 1998).
Although IPsec can also be used in IPv4, it is optional but not mandatory as in
IPv6. Also, when IPsec is deployed together with NAT, packet protection becomes
difficult. With NAT the IP address and the port number of a packet must be
changed and hence complete packet protection cannot be guaranteed. This can also
lead to a compromise in end to end security deployment. In IPv6, the use of NAT
is eliminated and so complete end to end security can be deployed without this
issue. Also when the IP layer is protected, there is no need to protect packets
in upper layers that might lead to duplicated security functionality (Blanchet,


Improvements in IPv6 packet structure makes it different from the packet
structure of IPv4 and this means that routing IPv6 traffic will not be
supported by older routing protocols used in IPv4 (Genkov, 2011). Also,
considering the importance given to network scalability and reliability during
routing protocol implementation, development of dynamic routing protocols
supported by IPv6 became a necessity.