Research in the field of Electric-Hybrid vehicles has attracted many automotive engineers, as it involves coupling of power from two different power sources, also the hybrid drivetrain needs to be optimized for weight reduction and efficiency. There has been a great effort put by the engineers to increrase the battery range by recovering power during retardation and other places where power is lost.
New ideas and mechanisms are being proposed to optimize the drivetrain, several new components are made in order to meet the needs of weight reduction and increasing battery range. This has also evoked electrical engineers to optimize the battery pack and circuits to recover every inch of power from the system. New ideas for different power sources are being propsed like fuel cells, supercapacitors, optimized batteries to increase the primary battery range and bring down the need for recharging over and over. Electrical components like converters and controllers are synchronized and optimized so that less energy is dissipated and more power can be generated from the IC Engine during its working without compromising efficiency. The research has been led to propose different types of layout of drivetrains like series, parallel, series-parallel, complex drivetrains which on each part play different roles in supplying power to drive. More the hybridness of vehicle is increased less is the role of engine and power is compromised but emissions and exhaust gases are controlled. Also the catalytic converter is efficient at high temperatures, so if we propose a design which allows initial traction from motor and after reaching certain speed limit we operate engine, we can reduce early stage emissions and also temperatue of exhaust gases is high at high speed working of engine, therefore efficiency of catalytic converters can also be increased.
In this way emissions can be optimized to much extent. During engine working we can draw power from engine to charge the batteries in order to increase range of electric drive. A special drive to couple power from two different sources and introduction of secondary source to charge the batteries can be proposed whose primary function will be to draw the waste power of vehicle and charge the batteries.
Cost is yet another factor which influences the idea to be implemented and bring hybrid vehicles in market on large scale. Since this involves different power sources like engine, battery pack and other components like traction motor, generator, power couplers, electrical components and sensors like convertors, controllers, battery management system, they altogether set up the initial cost very high, so several plans are proposed for providing subsidies by the governments in order to promote environment friendly drives, but not yet been implemented successfully. This field involves lot of potential and growth as both mechanical and electrical work is to be optimized and implemented in the transition phase where performance is shifted from engines to traction motors.