REVIEW OF LITERATUREThis chapter includes the related literature and studies which were gathered by the researchers to supply more information in order to effectively strengthen and support the claims cited in the research.Conceptual LiteratureFor further understanding of the study, the researchers gathered concepts about the characteristics of MAPEH teachers, the teaching of MAPEH, problems in teaching and enrichment activities. Characteristics of MAPEH teachers. The teaching – learning process is incomplete without teachers. It is because teachers play an essential role on the said process and without them learning will be hard on the part of every pupil. Being a guide and a facilitator is not an easy task for it requires an extraordinary effort on the part of teachers to make their pupils learn and enjoy the process of learning. So, teachers must possess characteristics that will help them to do their role effective and efficient.
These characteristics will also contribute to make their teaching methods and strategies more appealing and suitable to pupils, giving them unforgettable and enjoyable learning experiences.Some of these characteristics are called demographic characteristics. These are assigned to age, sex, seminars/trainings, length of teaching service and special skills. Age helps teachers to determine their level of ability in their work. It also gives them a sense of expansion, awareness, development and richer experience. It also develops their self-confidence and self-assurance and makes them to adjust in a certain working environment. Moreover, during teaching practice, it was found out that female student teachers are more patient in explaining concepts and more willing to change their presentations and speaking styles for the purposes of achieving better teaching effectiveness than male student teachers.
In terms of length of teaching service, this characteristic influences the work performance of every teacher by motivating them and helping them to achieve higher- problem solving capabilities. Furthermore, it is said that teachers should make every effort to improve the standards of their profession through constant study of the latest methods and recent trends about teaching. Attending in some in-service training activities such as seminars, trainings, workshops, conferences, conventions, symposiums, demonstration teachings, professional meetings and lecture forums will also help. It is because participating and attending in these activities will upgrade their skills, competencies and salary range, help them to acquire administrative and supervisory competence, develop their leadership’s potential and prepare them to promotion (Solon, 2006). From the concept of Wiebe (2015), there are some essential characteristics that music teachers should have. The top in the list is passion. According to him, passion is the difference between feeling drained and burned out and feeling energized and enthusiastic at the end of the day, no matter what happens.
Music teachers must not only possess love and passion for music but they must also have passion and love for teaching. Next is patience. Teaching is a life – long process, so they must be patient to help their pupils to understand theories and concepts and develop necessary skills, for pupils have different preferences, learning styles and needs that must be met by them. Third, Music teachers must be goal – oriented and best examples to their pupils in order to model the things they want their pupils to emulate. Fourth, they must be always prepared.
Even lessons are considered as learner-centered it does not mean that teachers will not prepare their lessons in advance. It must be a reminder for them that they must study and prepare their lessons and learning activities very well. The progression of every pupil is different from one another. Some pupils are fast-learners, some are not. Some are visual-learners while others are auditory-learners. That’s the reason, why every Music teacher must be flexible in order for them to adapt to the different characteristics possessed by their pupils. In addition, Music teachers must be able to efficiently organize a singing group and develop it into a group that can perform competently not only in the school but also in the community and in the society as well.
They must be able to create some children’s songs no matter how simple it is, which may be integrated with other subject areas under the curriculum of the pupils. In connection with this, music teachers must have the ability to harmonize melodies and develop simple accompaniments. Lastly, teachers in Music must be knowledgeable about music theories, music history, rudiments of harmony and other learning for a richer background.
Moreover, another important component of MAPEH is Arts, which should be taught not just for the sake of end – products but for the satisfaction and self – identification that will be experienced by every pupil. With this, teachers must possess important characteristics that will help them to achieve this certain goal not only for their own sake but most important is for the sake of their pupils. Since Arts is one of the subjects that can be considered fun and enjoyable, it is important that teachers must have characteristics that will fit in this component of MAPEH for the benefits of every pupil who is the center of the teaching – learning process. The following are the characteristics that Arts teachers must possess. First, they must have desires to make pupils learn something new about Arts and have fun while doing some learning activities. This includes the elements and principles of Arts, necessary techniques and strategies and the most important part is the appreciation of Arts that will be built in the pupils.
Second, they make the pupils feel comfortable and encourage them to practice self-expression that is very essential in doing some artworks. Then, Arts teachers let the pupils to explore their hidden talents while developing an appreciation of this component. They also let pupils to discover the role that Arts play in the world and its relationship with other subject areas. Lastly, they strive hard to encourage pupils to produce an art work in every topic that is unique and expresses their own ideas, feelings, emotions and skills (Victoria, 2006). Furthermore, according to Garcia (2017), MAPEH involves training in physical fitness and development which is implemented in its one component – Physical Education. It centers on the development of pupils’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills. It also helps the pupils to learn on working as an individual or part of a team. But, for Physical Education to become effective, adequate time and content and availability of the materials and equipments should be met.
Characteristics that must be possessed by every P.E. teacher is very important to be qualified in teaching this component. He/she must be trained and educated in athletic training and physical education and must have a four-year degree in education with focus on health, physical education and kinesiology or physiology. Some vital characteristics that should be attained by P.E. teachers are as follows: First and foremost, they need to be a skilled educator for she needs to understand and follow the curriculum documents and teaching contents that are appropriate for the specific grade level. They must also exhibit exemplary character for working with children is a demanding task and cannot be done by just any person.
Their honesty and morals must not be questioned by anyone and their treatment with their pupils must be fair and equal. Another is communication skills which enable them to explain the directions and instructions of every physical activity to pupils. Organizational skills is another important characteristic which helps teachers to maintain an accurate record about the progress of every pupil, evaluates their physical skills, assesses the effects of each physical activity from day-today and keeps track of which pupils need more attention and are more physically capable.
P.E. teachers must be enthusiastic in their job. This can be passed onto the pupils by motivating them to perform physical activities and athletic trainings and to have fun performing. Also, they must possess Athletic skills. They must be skilled and knowledgeable in a variety of sports, reflect good health, physical coordination, vitality and must be well-informed about the nutritional value of the different food groups so they can explain it to their pupils.