Sequence of development is development following the same basic patterns but not necessarily at fixed stages.
Rate of development is the speed of which the child will develop through each stages and sequences. However not every child is the same; some may walk at 11 months but some will start to walk at 13 months.
Why is the difference between the sequence of development and rate of development important? The difference between rates of development and sequence of development is important as it helps a person (in this particular case; the teacher or teaching assistant) work out a child’s individual need, for example, do they need one to one?, do they need special education? Etc. This also helps plan in advance what the child may need in class and whether they need extra support. The sequence is important because it shows the basic pattern and whether the child is following it and the rate (even though every child is different) is important because it shows the speed of the child’s development, the two developments help track and determine help for the child being worked with.
Learning Outcome 2 Factors influencing development
Describe, with examples, the kinds of influences that affect children and young people’s development (including external factors and personal factors) (2.1 2.2) Personal factors that can affect a child and young person’s development would be; disability, health status, learning difficulties, sensory impairment and genetic inheritance. This may influence the young person and child’s development as they could feel like they are not the same as the other children around them in their everyday and school life or perhaps because they are being treated differently and possibly they are unable to perform the “basic” task that every child is expected to.
External factors that can affect a child and young person’s development would be; family environment, care status, poverty/finance, education, background and motivation. This may influence a child and young person’s development as they may begin to feel inferior to the others around them, or perhaps may not be able to get the love and attention they need due to the family conflict linking to family environment in the list above, or is not getting their basic needs met due to the financial side of things.
Describe why it is important to recognise and report any concerns that you may have noticed in relation to a child or young person’s development? It is important to recognise and report any concerns that you may notice in relation to a child or young person’s development so that you are able to give them the help and support that they may need. It is also important so that you and the rest the staff in a school environment are able to look after the child and further investigate into why something may be happening, it is important to report any concerns as you could potentially be helping a child in desperate need but is unable to verbalise what it is.
Give examples from practice –
1. Physical Development – Example of physical development from my practise would be that when I first joined, a student would continuously refuse to take part in Physical Education, however, after talking to him and helping him through everything, he is now starting to participate in the lesson with fewer outbursts than before.
2. Intellectual Development- Example of intellectual development from my practise would be supporting in reading and writing, e.g. a child would say a sentence and I would write it down for them on a white board and they read it back to me and copy it back onto their work sheet/book. Another thing would be playing games with them, e.g. Maths Bingo, this helps them count and helps them with their reaction time as well as their communication skills when they have to say “me please”.
3. Emotional /Moral Development- Examples of emotional/moral development from my practise would be praising a child for what they have done even if some may assume it is small e.g. “Well done for saying thank you”, this encourages them to do more of it and boosts their self-esteem. Another thing is that playing and interacting with a child before they have a major difficulty, e.g. I took a child out to play on the mats, a game that I had made up where he had to sleep and I, among other people tried waking him up, this calmed him down and made him a lot more happier then he was before and opened a few doors to trusting me, my class team and the class students.
Learning outcome 5 TRANSITIONS
What are common transitions within the age range of 1 – 19 years? (5.1)
School – Moving key stages (ks1 to ks2) or moving schools (primary to secondary and secondary to college/sixth form/apprentenship)
Family – Moving houses or boroughs or country.
Personal – puberty
Social – changing friendship groups, social media
What transitions may only be experienced by some children? (eg bereavement) Transitions could also be changes in a child’s life that may be left unexpected or something that only happened to them, such as; a close family members sudden death, violence/abuse between the family, the child or their family or friends becoming seriously ill, parental separation or divorce, a life changing accident etc.
How might transitions affect children and young people’s development? Transitions are changes that take place in our lives. This can arise over a short or long period of time; it can be physical, emotional or personal and can be expected or can randomly happen. Every child and young person will go through many transitions, some of them may have a positive impact on the young person or child (such as more motivation or self-esteem); whereas others may have a negative impact. For many children, their emotional pain could lead to changes in behaviour. Some children or young people will not be able to explain their feelings or to talk with other people about what they are experiencing; they may separate themselves, becoming quiet and withdrawn. In others, the reaction may be the opposite and they become verbally and/or physically aggressive and in general less cooperative, for example; slamming doors, staying out late, getting into trouble, refusing to follow the simplest of instruction or some may even go to the extent of hurting themselves as a coping mechanism and a self-punishment or do drugs.
Evaluate the effect of children and young people having positive relationships during periods of transition? (5.2)
A positive relationship with a child and young person during a time of transition is important because it ensure the person that they are safe and that they have someone to talk to. Children need reliability, trust and good bonding whether it is with a teacher, parents, career etc. and having someone to trust makes transition easier for children. Positive relationships allow children to become more resilient and have a long time positive impact on a child. Children will feel as if they are cared for rather than being alone in a social setting and will be successful in their academic rather than having a sudden dip in their grades or work, as they will be able to cope with it more than if they did not have a positive relationship. The child would feel more confident in them and have a higher self-esteem, allowing them the chance of meeting new people and making new friendship groups. Also, young people may need guidance because perhaps they may not know what is going on and so a positive relationship would allow a child to be more open and they would trust someone to tell possible “uncomfortable” or awkward things to. If a child or young person has a good transition earlier in life it would help to have better transition later on.
Learning outcome 3 Monitoring Development
Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods. (3.1)
Informal Observation: – observing the child/young person while interacting with them e.g. a walk-through of work, game, story etc.
Formal Observation: –a process of watching a child without any interaction within the activity.
Why might their development not follow the normal pattern of development? Give examples (3.2)
Development may be effected by: Personal problems, Home life, disability, bereavement, Health issues, EAL, Lack of confidence. The child or young person’s development may not follow the normal pattern of development as they may have gaps in their development causing the normal pattern to break apart. For example, a child may not have been loved, held or talked to as a baby due to family conflict or even mental health problems within the family, and so that left a gap in the development pattern and the child may still behave like a toddler even though they may be 7 years of age merely due to the fact that they missed stage of development. Another thing is that a child may not know how to speak the language of the school/country properly and so that may put him off and cause a pull back on the usual pattern of normal development. Furthermore, lack of confidence may leave a child not following the normal pattern of development as they may not have the confidence to do what normally a child would consider normal, they may not be confident enough to interact with others and therefore leaving a gap in the normal pattern of development particularly in the social and emotional concept of it.
Explain how disability may affect development (3.3)
If a child has a physical disability, it would affect their development as they may be unable to play and run around like most of the other children do, affecting their social skills, and they might need help performing some “basic” everyday things. Another thing is that if they have a learning disability, it may lead to a lack of confidence or they possibly will miss their playtime to catch up with work. Also they could get bullied and treated differently by the other children.
Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where
Development is not following the expected pattern. (3.4)-
Speech and language- helps children overcome the majority of their problems. By helping children increase the skills to use language, help children gain confidence and self-esteem. This helps them interact with other children rather than show frustration for being unable to verbalise what they are thinking. This helps them express themselves.
The SENCO – is an educational setting that supports children and families with special needs this person/s is also responsible for identification of special needs. This helps the child as well as the family to feel a sense of belonging to the school as they are not facing things alone but rather have a team to work with.
Social workers – they are there to help vulnerable children and young people and their families. This may take in children on the child protection register or disabled children.
Learning outcome 4 Early Intervention
Analyse why early recognition of a speech, language & communication disorder is so important, against the potential risks of late recognition (4.1) Early recognition of speech, language and communication disorder is truly important against potential risk of late recognition because the earlier the diagnosis of delayed language acquirement, the easier it is for professionals to give effective targets for the child or young person’s needs. Another thing is that language is crucial to learning and communicating, if a child or young person is unable to do that at early stages, they could have a bigger struggle in the future and will need even more support than if it is recognised at earlier point of the disorder. Furthermore, if it is not recognised at earlier, it could lead to a child becoming frustrated, having behavioural problems such as outburst for avoiding work and possible isolation. Lastly, it could lead to a child having difficulties in building relationships as communication and language is the key and they would be struggling with that.
An explanation of how multi agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication (4.2)
The SENCO: The SENCO will coordinate concerns raised by teaching staff/parents/carers about a particular student’s speech and language needs. Initially, they may access and use available support programmes within the school e.g. social skills groups/ targeted phonics groups and speech and language groups. After a period of time the SENCO will meet with key staff and monitor the impact of the programs. If there are continued concerns about the student’s communication they will gather information and make a referral to the Speech and Language Service.
Additional learning support staff: Learning Support Staff should read the reports of any student with speech and language needs and implement these as necessary. If Learning Support Staff are concerned about the speech and language development needs of a student they should raise this with the SENCO and they will be asked for their observations about a student. Key Learning Support Staff may be trained by the Speech and Language therapist service to deliver specific programmes to develop a student’s speech and language needs.
Speech and language therapists: Called in to assess children of school age where poor speech or articulation is considered to be affecting the students. Usually asses; Speech: the ability to pronounce words clearly, Language: the ability to use and understand words and sentences, Communication: the ability to use the language in interaction with others.
After an assessment has been completed there are a number of possible actions:
1. The SALT will provide and run a programme to meet the student’s needs.
2. The SALT gives feedback on the assessment and train a teaching assistant/support worker on delivering the programme. The SALT will then return to complete a further assessment to check on progress and adapt the programme as required.
Sensory Support teacher: The sensory support staffs help students with hearing impairments, visual impairments, multi-disabled V.I. / deafblind, and autism spectrum conditions.
Educational Psychologist: The Educational Psychologist’s assessments will refer to a student’s speech and language development and often the assessment conducted contains testing of both expressive and receptive language. Where there are concerns raised about Speech and Language development they are highly likely to suggest a referral to the Speech and Language Therapist service.
(4.3) What play, activities and interventions, could be used to develop all areas of the following;
Play is an important part of physical development and through play children beginning to use, control and co-ordinate of large body movement along with the movement of toes, hands and fingers. Teachers, teaching assistant and other child providers could help with physical development by encouraging; crawling, running, spinning, jumping, skipping, throwing and catching, climbing up and own things, pushing and pulling, hoping etc. They learn through mostly, touching, playing, listening and tasting.
Communication, intellectual development and learning:
Intellectual development is all about learning, it is how a human being organises their minds, ideas, and thoughts to make sense of the world around them. Some of the ways that a person learns are; trial and error, copying, exploring, talking, questioning, repeating word/steps/instructions, role playing, listening etc. Important factors for intellectual development are language and communication skills. Most of this includes, being able to read, exploring books, looking at pictures and recognising them and language includes; crying, laughing, gurgling, babbling, saying a few words (first words) etc. Language development helps a person to ask more questions of simple ideas to more multifaceted ideas. These developments are based upon a child’s own sequence and rate of development, age, and the opportunities to experiment and use language. The activities that promote development would be, being talked to, praising, listening, and encouraging, speaking slowly, always answering, speaking clearly, being patient, asking simple questions, correcting nicely etc.
Social, emotional & behavioural development:
Social behavioural development goes over how children involve themselves in relation to other people, how they communicate and make friends, make an understanding of the rules of societies and behave towards them. Emotional behavioural development involves how a child begins to understand other people feelings and points of view (feel empathetic) along with understanding how they themselves feel around other and about themselves. Things that help improve these sectors of development would be; to listen, to talk to them as well as encouraging them to talk, praising, helping them to make friends but things like putting them onto a group table allowing them to talk (think, peer, share), playing games within the class; such as charades, bingo, Pictionary (in my placement we have a game names guess what which we all sit down and play, you get a stuck of cards and you pick one from it and whatever you get you have to either make a sound that gives off what it is or do an action, depending on the card) etc. Also helping build self- confidence is critical at this stage of development.
Many people insist that a child morally developing and a sense of caring are principles that are developed at home rather than school, however teachers, teaching assistants and other staffs of school help with a child’s moral thoughts as well while they are at school (in the UK, from typically 9am to 3pm). Members of staff usually encourage children to say simple things like “excuse me”, “thank you”, “you’re welcome”, “pardon me”, etc. which is considered a small thing however plays a huge part in moral development. Other things that school staff could help with is praising a child when they say things like that as this begins to encourage them to say it more, staff also teach children to knock on doors before entering and saying “excuse me,” or “sorry for disturbing”, this links to moral development as it shows children where limits are and how other people may take offence of things as ‘simple’ as walking into a room without permission, also it shows how adults as well as other children appreciate the kindness and ‘role model’ behaviour that a child is presenting by just doing a few simple steps. Other things that could help would be to read moral stories and have a discussion about it, to watch a movie/play about moral dilemmas and how one came over it, to allow children to act out a moral problem and give solutions to overcome it (through play), etc.