SOFT SKILLS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENTVikram Laxman Jadhav – Team LeadMitali Sanjekar – Backup LeadYousuf MohammedSurendranath AtluriSeetha Ramanjaneyulu NalluriCampbellsville University Soft Skills of Project ManagementWhile discussing among our team members, we went through all the topics, but we found the “Soft Skills for Project Management” most fascinating. This subject had so many different levels and sub-topics to it. Everyone can develop hard-skills required to run a project, but very few project managers or people at the leadership level possess excellent soft skills. While hiring the right candidates, hiring managers generally check their technical skills, whether they are good with the tools and technologies, whether they have industry or domain knowledge. These skills are obviously of primary importance. Secondarily, if the role requires, managers also check whether the candidates are fluent in communication but that is not enough. Soft-skills like Leadership, communication, motivation, influencing team members, decision making, political and cultural awareness of the organization, negotiation skills with client and other stakeholders, building trust among team members, effective coaching and conflict management are equally essential.
With this paper, we want to elaborate on this topic because soft skills are the heart of the project manager’s job and companies try to seek out these skills in project managers and leaders. A good project manager should be able to showcase soft-skills as effectively as he handles his tasks, resources, cost, schedule, and timeline of the project. Therefore, it’s very important for project managers/leaders to have soft skills. These skills are also very important to train aspiring future project management students and employees.
Good soft skills will not only help an individual towards personal growth at his workplace but also changes his behavior outside of his work. Essential Skills For Project ManagementMany soft skills in combination, help in the success of a project manager and a successful project management group. After researching through articles, journals and books on project management skills, we narrowed down to ten skills which we believe are most essential to have for effective project management. Further in our paper, we have described all the soft-skills in detail and their importance in the field of project management.Leadership Leadership is the most important skill which every project requires.
Project Management Office can provide a project with a budget, resources, tools, technology, project plan etc., but only a successful Project leader can drive a project from start to end with timely deliverables. According to Barber and Warn (2005), if the project lacks leadership, it lacks control. If there is no control in the project, it can lose its track, delay the timeline, leading to over budgeting, unexpected outcomes and the most important, unhappy client. Project Managers of these projects will be able to recover from such events, but it will be an example of inefficient leadership to all the stakeholders.Abdo-Alaziz and Armanu (2015) have described leadership Behavior as, team member’s response to his leader in a certain way when the leader exhibits his behavior towards him.
Leaders of the team will exhibit different types of behavior based on their personalities. A leader will be considered to have good behavior with his team members when he is able to motivate, guide, build and reward them based on the situation. The leader should be able to forecast and implement appropriate decision at right time based on the welfare of the project.Leadership Models. There are two types of project leadership models, “firefighter” or the proactive leadership, and “firelighter” or the reactive leadership (Barber ; Warn, 2005).Firefighter. This type of leadership is reactive. A project leader who reacts after a problem has occurred is called a reactive leader.
They are very relaxed from the beginning, they don’t take measures to forecast potential problems and have a laid-back attitude. When a problem becomes prominent, they act but are not prepared for it from the very beginning. They like to address problems as and when they come.Firelighter. This type of leadership is proactive. A proactive leader is a leader who forecasts problem and solutions for the problems during the initiation of the project.
A proactive leader’s main goal success of the project. The proactive leader will be motivated to go out of his way to avoid future problems. He is called a firelighter because he lights the fire before it gets dark. These leaders also keep team members motivated and reward them when they do a good job.
Proactive leaders are influencers, considerate, intellectual and inspirational.Over the years lot of research has been done on finding the characteristics of a good leader. Clarke (2009) has described in his paper development of Project Leadership Assessment for the commercial environment (PLACE) by Dr. Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic. Researchers initially studied over 40 attributes essential for successful leadership after which the number raised to 96 essential attributes over the years. This was the result of PLACE Psychometric research. PLACE is a self-reporting, untimed, 54 items psychometric inventory which is used to assess leadership attributes in an individual (Clarke, 2009). PLACE also has another tool which is called PLACE Profiler.
This is used to assess leadership profiles of individual employees based on all the psychometric attributes. Profiler assigns a percentage to each leadership attribute, for every individual. Using this information, an efficient leader/project manager can be selected for the project.
Team BuildingAnother skill very important for successful project management is team building. Team Building is a process by which brilliant minds are brought together to work for the benefit of the project (Dumitrache ; Gica, 2011). For the success of any project, People Management is as important as cost management, time management or managing associated tools and technologies. If a project has everything it needs but lacks skilled labor, it would never be able to deliver on schedule; which will lead to increase in cost and again, the unhappy client. Team members are the most integral part of any project. Skilled and efficient people can be brought together at one place, but building them into a team, where they can work with each other for the entire duration of the project requires good people management skills.Team Development Lifecycle. The team cannot be built in a day, it requires analyzing the requirements and skills needed for the project.
The project manager should have the knowledge of all the stages involved in team building lifecycle. Bubshait and Farooq (1999) have described five stages of team building.Forming. In this stage, the team members are excited about working on a new project. They are introduced to the team by the project manager in project kick-off meeting. There isn’t enough communication among the team because it is the initiation of the project and they are still unsure about some aspects.
In this stage team members generally, try to please each other by saying only positive things.Storming. In this stage, there is more communication and views are expressed strongly by the team members. In this stage, each person craves to take some challenges or authority.
Team members listen less, react and defend more. Since team members try to compete for control, there is less collaboration and more discussion. This is the stage to interpret whether the team will be a success or a failure for the project.Norming.
In this stage members start collaborating more, there is a common leadership, and everyone has an agreement to ideas. Some team members can have their pre-conceived notions due to discussions did during the storming stage, but at least everyone is working towards a common goal and prepared to change.Performing. In this stage, the team members have gained maturity and are aligned towards working for benefit of the project. There is more communication, trust, and warmth in the team. Team members show interest in each other’s ideas and are more flexible towards accepting them. Due to this, there is more productivity in the team at this stage.
Mourning. In this stage, the team will either work very hard to complete the project or the team members will be demotivated that the project is coming to an end if they don’t have any future assignments. It is project managers responsibility to keep the team motivated because the end of the project is a critical stage for the success of the project.
Factors Influencing the Performance of Teams. According to Bubshait and Farooq (1999), there are four factors influencing a project team’s performance:People. A project team will perform well if all the team members have good people skills. The most important people skill is communication. If team members have the ability to communicate effectively with every aspect of the project, the team will have a successful project. Every team member should be able to contribute equally towards every task.
If some members are performing and some are not, the team will fail to deliver a project. The project manager should possess the skill to resolve conflicts, but even team members should be able to resolve them. Team-spirt, collaborative-spirit and mutual trust are also very important for a team’s success. Every member should be committed, and they should be able to self-evaluate and self-develop themselves. They should be able to interface effectively and should have the desire to do quality work.Leadership.
A good leader has skills to motivate the team members, making himself visible and accessible for all the needs of the stakeholder’s conflict management capability. He should also be able to communicate with senior management effectively and convey the needs and requests of the team to them. He should be good at decision making and unifying the team whenever a team gets distracted or is losing the track. He should be proactive and should be able to find solutions to the problems before they occur. A team will deliver high performance if it has a high performing leader.Task.
A team cannot start working randomly on tasks. When a project manager creates a plan, he divides tasks and responsibilities for each team member. Some members complete their tasks on time delivering quality, but some don’t. These weak links can affect overall team performance. So, for the team to perform well, every member should be able to deliver all the tasks on time and with quality.
The team should also adaptable to changing requirements and standards. Organization: Organization has a very high influence on the performance of the teams. The organization should have a collaborative culture and its goals should be aligned with the goals of the project. Goals and objectives should also be stable, they should not change every time. The organization should have a stimulating work environment and senior management should be involved in the team’s work and interests.
A good organizational culture will result in a high performing team.CommunicationThe communication is said to be effective only when the receiver receives exactly what sender intended to send and when you work in the team, effective communication is the key thing that teams lack. In the project management, the communication has a broad spectrum and can be divided into subparts like verbal communication, written communication, project schedule, requirement documents, Gantt chart, status reports, scrum meetings, vertical and horizontal communication, meeting summaries and feedback. As the communications in an integral part of the project management and plays important role in the success of the project, we are going to go over few important aspects on the communication in terms of soft skills which are also focused on the success of the project.
The communication in project management sounds like an obvious thing but in reality, it is very challenging. The best way of communication is face-to-face which assist the team leader as well as team members to clear the doubts at very point and without leaving any confusion which would impact on the progress of the project. Next best choice would be virtual meetings where it gives freedom to the team members to join all over the world and get to know their cultural differences and get to connect with different people. Such communication helps the team to stay diversified which adds productive value to the team. In many product based companies, the teams are choosing to teleconference over virtual conferencing due to convenience and mobility. I personally believe, the teleconferencing works best in the situations where teams are in the same time zone or locality but in other situation where team members are scattered geographically, teleconferencing has mostly seen as a problem. We have seen the communication mediums in above section through which team can communicate as per the availability of the medium. Now, let’s see some characteristics of the communication medium(Smit, Bond-Barnard, Steyn, & Fabris-Rotelli, 2017), Media Richness.
The amount of information that the receiver can receive highly depends on the media richness which can be defined as an ability of media to communicate by the media in order to convey what the sender wanted to send. The face-to-face communication is considered as powerful communication media. Synchronous and asynchronous communication. Synchronous communication where all the team members come together and communicate. In this case, you will receive immediate feedback, unlike asynchronous communication.
In asynchronous communication, all team members still communicate but they do not expect an immediate response. Example. E-mail where the team member can reply as per his/her convenience. Equivocality. This term is used to describe a level of ambiguity in the project tasks. If the task is measured as higher in equivocality then it required a richer communication medium because it increases the chance of misunderstanding in such tasks. Communication Planning.
Research by Zulch (2014) listed the necessary steps in the communication planning in order to have effective communication. Project Organizational Structure. In this, as per the author, the organizations are mainly categorized into two forms: 1) Bureaucratic and 2) Matrix. In project management, with this structure, each employee has other employees that he/she report too which increases flexibility and accountability. Line of Communication. Basically, there are 4 directions through which communication can flow in a matrix structure. Downward communication is where team member gets instruction or updates from his/her team leader.
On the other hand, upward communication where team members report to their project leader or project leader reports to the project sponsor and so on. Horizontal communication takes place at a same level of the organization. MotivationThe best project plan alone is not going to make the project successful. It is equally important to keep the team members motivated throughout the progress of the project. It has been seen that initial phase of the project gets completed flawlessly as all the project members are excited to work on the project and eager to apply their knowledge that they grasped in the past project but as the time passes, the team members started to experience different type of hurdles and that is when motivation comes into the picture.
The motivation has a profound impact on the success of the project and it may make or break the schedule as the project progresses. There is mainly 2 type of motivations that we are going to focus here. 1) Intrinsic 2) Extrinsic (Roland, & Jean,2003). The intrinsic motivation is focused on the self-motivation techniques where the reward is what you as a team member enjoy to do. The intrinsic motivation is where an individual accomplishes something for his/her satisfaction. The team member attending a course to learn a new language, going to perform outdoor activities which will feel him/her refreshed, organizing your bookshelf because you like to be organized and all of them come under intrinsic motivation. The extrinsic motivation is a type of motivation where you get reward externally to avoid getting into the trouble in future or earn some extra rewards. For example, the guests are going to visit you at your home then the tasks performed by you to get your home organized to make sure the guests feel welcome.
You have a test coming in following weeks then the test preparation is considered as extrinsic motivation. The study conducted by Glovis, Cole, & Stavros (2014) on 109 SAP professional to understand the motivation and SOAR (strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results) impact on the project success. They try to use the flow as a measuring characteristic to find the motivational impact on the optimal performance. The state can be defined as the individual awareness towards the actions taken by the individuals but not aware of self. Similarly, Heidi (2012) conducted a study on 78 audit and teams to assess the positive effect of the team motivation to generate successful outcomes but at the same time how it impacted the team working under pressure. It is found that the performance of the teams was enhanced because of the motivation which resulted from extra pressure on the team to deliver the goals. It has been widely believed that pressure on the team impact negatively on the performance of the team but it is also true that the pressure keeps a team motivated if that motivation is directed by the project manager in a correct direction.
Highly motivated teams are good candidates to complete their projects by following the timeline outlined by the project manager and leads the team towards the final objectives. One of the control questions asked by the researchers Klopotan, Mjeda, & Kure?i? (2018) was the importance of the motivation in the company and statistics proves that how the motivation contribute significantly on the work environment of the company. It is clear that the motivation plays a significant role in improving the work environment of the company, boost the morale of the team, improved performance as an individual. Also, the intrinsic motivation is vital for the self-improvement which would not only help the team but also an individual to grow and work more effectively and more efficiently.
Time ManagementTime management implies those practices that go for accomplishing a viable utilization of time while playing out certain objective coordinated exercises. Although little work has inspected time management with regards to base on an organization, a moderately substantial writing has explored the idea in the management of associations even more extensively. We draw on this writing in portraying the attributes of positive time management practices in schools, work etc., and creating assumptions regarding the part of time management among organization principals in influencing their ability to advance changes in environments.Levels of popularity on one’s opportunity are normal for some callings. The beneficial individuals, as a rule, have more things that they might want to do, or need to do than they have time.
” This depiction applies to the activity of most school principals, who have a duty regarding the time-escalated errands of overseeing school tasks, directing instructional projects, building relations among staff individuals, etc. In such callings, ending up more gainful means discovering approaches to achieve more given constrained time. Dealing with one’s chance more capable is one approach to satisfy this objective.Components of good time management. Research distinguishes a few methods and practices related to management of time. For instance, examines locate that one can utilize time proficiently and gainfully by setting here and now and long-haul objectives, keeping time logs, organizing errands, making a plan for the day and booking, and getting sorted out one’s workspace. There are three aspects of time management we can design likewise: short-run arranging, long-run arranging, and time mentalities.
Short-go arranging is the capacity to set out and sort out errands in the short run (e.g. inside multi-day or seven days). Long-extend arranging is the ability to oversee undertakings over a more drawn out time skyline (e.g. in a quarter or a year) by defining objectives, monitoring imperative dates, and constraining delaying. Constructive time states of mind show that a man is arranged toward utilizing their opportunity helpfully and keeping up organization over how their chance is spent.Time management and job outcomes.
A few examinations show that time management predicts work execution. For instance, auto business people with better time management abilities have higher deals College understudies with better time management aptitudes report higher review point midpoints County expansion executives with better time management abilities are evaluated higher by their bosses (colleague provincial chiefs). To comprehend the relationship between time management and employment execution, analysts have explored a progression of conceivable linkages.
Most unmistakably, time management enhances work productivity by empowering experts to assign sufficient time to their activity’s most imperative undertakings. This more noteworthy regard for high-need work zones enhances specialist results. The desire that expanded time management will build specialist efficiency by empowering representatives to “work quicker witted” has driven far-reaching interest in time management preparing in the private division.
Concentrates additionally recommend that compelling time management diminishes work pressure, which can be a critical obstacle to work execution. Obviously, better time management requires not prompt better occupation execution under all conditions. Expanding work execution requires participating in more profitable practices. Human conduct is a capacity in part of how much control one sees he or she has over that conduct. Control is compelled by assets, including time and abilities; time management expands the view of control by loosening up a portion of these limitations.Decision MakingThe most critical thing in business success is critical thinking.
The thing that determines our skills as a leader are the qualities of our decision. There are a lot of trivial decisions that a leader makes in a day which can be made using basic “common sense”. In general, some decisions have a huge impact on team members, project or business. In such cases, a significant result can take place in taking an intuitive, “gut feel” decision A systematic decision-making model is needed to minimize negative consequences and decisions that are complex and have high impact.Framework of the Decision-Making. There are Five principles that we seek to respect during the implementation of the method of process design.Five Principles. Below are five main principles in decision making.
Principle of Objectification. As a precondition to any extent, it is important to construct the bases of exchange, the bases on which we will have the capacity to manufacture the task. A mutual culture empowers aggregate adequacy. The standard of generalization considers the development of a mutual dialect, it takes into consideration shared conceptualization, an aggregate portrayal, by thinking about all specialized, political hierarchical, social and key components concerning the undertaking.
It must be connected all through the term of the undertaking, however, it is especially basic in the main stages amid the definition of the outline issue.Principle of Construction of Finalities. The principle of construction of Finalities can be coordinated into an arrangement of various needs, be these key, hierarchical, or radiating from customers or accomplices.
The regard of this approach makes the utilization of this guideline significantly less straightforward. From the beginning stage of different theories, shifting mastery and diverse perspectives joined in one anticipate, we try to assemble intelligibility. To touch base at a worthy trade-off, it is important to do an errand of development instead of an approach where one ‘fixes the destinations and chooses to stick to them ‘and where one tries to ‘persuade’ and ‘legitimize the certainties’. The principle of construction of Finalities is a fundamental condition of getting results, as far as both group attachment and basic leadership.
Principle of Confrontation. The confrontation of finalities versus saw circumstance considers the development of the task by the distinctive members. One of the obligations of the task chief is to sort out the elaboration of the middle of the road articulations of the portrayal of the venture and the item. He or she should have the capacity to incorporate the distinctive assets in the group and speak with them, inspire them to take an interest in the recreation of the conclusions and the venture as per their individual perspective and when gone up against with the perspectives of others. Principle of Association of Activity/Finality. By respecting this principle, we are trying to keep away from the ‘who aimlessly executes his own particular undertaking and is unconscious of the framework part of the task’. To be sure, ‘The issue emerges from the trouble, for the people or gatherings of people who do the exercises that establish the procedure, to see plainly to which process their action contributes and to build for themselves a significant portrayal of the weightiness of their own behavior inside the general arrangement of activities.
To accomplish this, amid the procedure of elaboration of the middle of the road proclamations of portrayal of the undertaking and of the item, which will empower the accomplishment of the conclusions of the task, as a team with the whole group, we need to ensure the respect of the principle of association of activity/finality.Principle Anticipation or Pre-emption. The permanent reconstruction of the intermediate statements of representation of the project and of the product in the light of the changing finalities and the perceived situation is a consequence of the principle of anticipation. This necessitates that the objectification of the finalities and of the perceived situation and the analysis of the risks be revised and enriched regularly.
Conflict ManagementUnderstanding the Level of Conflicts. There are certain levels of understanding the conflicts that could be interpersonal or individual level. Such levels are CITATION Pav04 l 1033 (Pavlenko, 2004).Approach and avoidanceApproach and approach and finallyAvoidance and avoidance. Group level of the conflicts is inter groups conflicts, Intragroup conflicts and finally interpersonal conflicts. This interpersonal issue could be between one or more people on the team. There could be many numbers of causes for having the conflicts between different people, different groups and different environments. The factors that lead to the conflict are the availability of the individuals or the groups in a firm or organization CITATION Dav83 l 1033 (Davis, 1983).
Scarcity of The Resources Includes. Effects due to the detrimental and beneficial sources helps in understanding the conflicts and go in details of the situation and finding out the consequence and resolution selection.Jehn’s typology explains some reasons for the causes of the conflicts. Conflicts about the content of the taskConflicts due to the emotionsManagement And Planning on Resolving the Conflicts.
Conflicts could be anything but mapping a correct solution is very important. Mapping will always be a multiple for each of the conflict. Every problem has a multiple solutions and multiple problems are dealt with a single solution. But selecting the right approach for the problem will help to resolve the problem quickly rather than going on random procedures. In negotiations also, you should have a blueprint to resolve the issue like you will have in any project planning. This will guide you what needs to be done in a step by step process and this will also guide you if you are stuck at any point. This will give you a clear picture on which step you are having a problem and will help you analyzing what are the solutions to resolve that problem.
Management of the situation measured on the basis of cooperativeness and assertiveness. When talking about the situation might turn from uncooperative module to the cooperative module and similarly from the unassertive case with the help of many intermediate resources which turns into assertiveness. When dealing with any situation and helping with the negotiation part. Compromising and collaboration of the all considerable factors and helping hands turn into the decision making. These factors collaboration, compromising and negotiation are within the circle and as discussed increase the efficiency of the assertiveness and cooperativeness to the highest peaks. When we consider the special situations like accommodating, it majorly influences cooperativeness but not the assertiveness. When we talk about pressing it mainly helps in the assertiveness but not cooperativeness. Avoiding is the least possible technique to work on resolving the conflicts.
It’s better not to choose to avoid factor because it will surely lead to the unassertiveness and uncooperativeness CITATION Jen01 l 1033 (Jennings, 2001).Negotiation Negotiation helps in resolving the problems and finalizing the decision making. The concept of negotiation involves multiple numbers of conceptual oriented things and different strategies to achieve the positive results. Several factors include price reservation, Level of aspiration and the bargaining values. All these factors help in providing the solution and creating the best possible approach based on the problems. The dimension of Distribution. The dimension of distribution elaborates many things like resource utilization in a proper way. A proper allocation of the resource and using them in a right way.
Distributiveness of the resources through a different number of projects in a firm provides the effective and very efficient results. These techniques help in resolving the issue and provide the solutions based on the parties involved such as the single and a multiple numbers of parties. Distributing the pie of the resources in a project or utilization of the pie between the resources in the team or the within different teams. Integrative Dimension. Integrative dimension is a diplomatic way of dealing things. the outcome of the situation results in positive outputs of one party without having any trouble. Either of the parties was in a good talk here in this situation but the result will be achieved by the only a single team and another team with no emotions.
Because of the integrative dimensions both the parties involved and positive results needed to be demonstrated to only one party and other party remains as a losing section even without having any problem with all the teams. The benefit is mutual through any of the cooperative problem and approach selected in the situation solves the problems. The selected approach is mutually agreed to the team and beneficial to all the parties involved in the groups. As I explained the same situation about the sharing and spreading the resources equally and productively. Pie could be shared productively with the integrative dimensions which help in many situations.Mixed Motive Nature. Mixed motive nature helps in resolving the issue in many possible approaches and helps in many situations.
Balancing Cooperativeness. Balancing the situation is different when many people or the groups involved in handling the situation. Most of the approaches favor the situation in a single-sided way and bring the final resolution.
It balances the parties and provides the equal solution for any of the parties.Competitiveness in Behavior. It even gives the competitiveness between the parties or people and provides the people with equal opportunities. The way of handling the situation between the teams might be different but it equally provides the competitiveness for all teams involved in the situation.Enlarging the Available Resources. The availability could be the same in terms of resources and using them with a special approach and making use of the things in a right way and right time very important. Pie is common which determines the resource availability.
Enlarging the resource and mold them into proper shape will enhance the outcome of the story.Role of Sharing Information. The quality of the output or the result always differs in terms of how you utilize the available information and share the information between the people and groups. If more information is shared to a single team then the positive outcome would be more for that team. In such a way if the team with very lesser information will fall back into the negative side. The advantage of the teams varies based on the quality and quantity of the information shared between the groups. Either not sharing or the sharing the wrong information will always result in the failure of the team or individual. But the leadership or the higher authority dealing with multiple parties should always keep in mind about sharing the information and distributing it across the teams to avoid the conflicts and finding out the best possible negotiation strategies.
Trust Building Trust Building in any team plays a vital role and it does in project management as well, handling a project, A project manager needs to have trust in his/her team that the team is capable of doing particular project or tasks as per the client requirement and policies, meeting all the objectives which companies sets for meeting their profits, similarly to get the projects your client should have the complete trust in you and your team. A team which has Trust issues within the team or with the administration may or may not produce the results as compared to team which has great understanding and the trust for an instance in construction fields, projects like constructing bridges, highways, motorways, and buildings often occurs over the course of few years, so contracting parties must establish the trustworthiness of the project team members, these construction projects are highly related to their cooperation, which is vulnerable without trust, and it will lead to the successful project, gradually lowering the risk taken by the contracting parties and hence trust should be present in the project team(Cheung, Yiu, & Lam, 2013). Not only it is the part of our working environments, it is very crucial part of our social life’s and we all look for trust in our life’s, it takes uncalculated time to build a trust, sometimes it can be very quick and sometimes it can take a very long time to build a trust, this is about building a trust on the other hand it takes seconds to get destroyed, actually it is exactly like building a strong skyscraper, it takes months if not years to build one, a strong one and it will take minutes if that needs to be demolished that’s how the trust works , it takes time to build but once it is built, it is stronger and reliable. Trust can be defined as a psychological state, it’s not a behavior, which is ambiguous and complex, face to face contact is the best way to construct trust, project managers working out with the virtual teams must setup virtual meeting at least once in a day and if possible more than that, factors like integrity, performing competently and showing concern for each other’s well-being, Trust in a team, leads to better communication within, it makes easy for team member to ask help within, also they can speak openly about their social and work-related issues , they can rely on each other, take risks, accept new challenges and carry out their undertakings without any or less of anxiety and stress , A working team stresses the significance of actions that ensure common understanding of actions, concepts, and results.
It is said that higher the level of trust, more the balance. It is been recognized that it can lead to cooperative behavior in organizations for example teams working on an architectural project will require the team members to collaborate with each other in a design team to get the desired output, Therefore it turns to be important to conduct research with respect to trust, in typical architect project handling team interpersonal trust plays a major role it directly affects the performance of a design team, if in case if it goes down it needs to be recognized first and rectified accordingly (Zhikun & Fungfai,2010). Advantages of Trust-based relationship in a working environment are as follows it lowers the cost, shortening duration and the most important it takes the graph of your performance towards upward straight away. Teams working in joint ventures (Girmscheid & Brockmann, 2010) for them trust is crucial, they may have two, four or more partners in the joint venture, the success to this kind of project comes only when they trust each other, it may take some time to build that trust, initially they may have conflicts but later they will with the absolute trust, achieve the desired output.
For multi partners handling joint and big ventures, the first thing what they consider is the trust.Political and cultural awareness plays an important role dealing the projects domestically and internationally, mostly when dealing international projects, as a team we should be aware of the political and cultural requirement of the international country or a region the project which is going to be delivered should comply with the international laws and culturewithout meeting the political or cultural requirements the project may get suspended hence the team should do a thorough study of political and cultural requirements when dealing with an international project or domestic projects.Globalization in businesses may face the danger of operating multicultural projects, keeping this in a mind companies specially trained or give the tools to their employees, it is called as cross-cultural training programs , the program makes sure that they get trained and which will drastically change the way they were used to work on regional projects, now they are aware of the cultural differences, it removes the danger of projects getting canceled.Political and cultural awarenessPolitical and cultural awareness plays an important role in dealing the projects domestically and internationally, mostly when dealing with international projects, as a team we should be aware of political and cultural requirement of the international country or a region the project which is going to be delivered should comply with the international laws and culture without meeting the political or cultural requirements the project may get suspended hence the team should do thorough study of political and cultural requirements when dealing with international project or domestic projects.
Globalization in businesses may face the danger of operating multicultural projects, keeping this in a mind companies specially trained or give the tools to their employees, it is called as cross-cultural training programs , the program makes sure that they get trained and which will drastically change the way they were used to work on regional projects, now they are aware of the cultural differences, it removes the danger of projects getting canceled.ConclusionRole of a Project Manager in a project team is of most important. His work is both science and an art. Science because he must take care of the technicalities like project schedule, project budget, recurring costs, problems, and earning profits.
Any person who is trained in these techniques can perform these tasks, but it takes more to run a project. Art in project management is when a project manager possesses excellent soft skills. Many researchers have introduced different types of soft skills which project managers need. All of them say, it is not just important to know the tools and techniques of Project Management, but individuals should also be capable of adapting all kinds of soft-skills to become a successful project manager.Future students and employees who have the potential to become project leaders/managers someday should be imparted with knowledge of soft skills.
Organizations should have training sessions for all the employees who desire to become a project manager. Management students should be introduced to real-time situations, which depict the use of soft skills at the workplace.Leadership, Team Building, Communication, Motivation, Conflict Management, Negotiation, Time Management, Decision Making, Trust Building, Political and Cultural Awareness, and Integrity, will not just help a future leader become better at their job but will also help them in their personal life. In personal life, these skills might come in handy when being introduced to difficult situations.To conclude, project managers who can call upon and apply specific skills and the right time in their projects are said to be successful project managers.References Abdo-Alaziz H. E, M.
, & Armanu, T. (2015). The Importance of Leadership Behavior and Motivation ?n Creating Employee Performance: (A Study at the Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Brawijaya). APMBA (Asia Pacific Management And Business Application), Vol 3, Iss 2, Pp 86-105 (2015), (2), 86.
02.2. Retrieved from http://apmba.ub.
ac.id/index.php/apmba/article/view/170/178 Automated negotiation: prospects, methods and challenges.
Group Decision and Negotiation, 10(2), 199-215. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0004370283900152&sa=D&source=hangouts&ust=1537133597621000&usg=AFQjCNElDpTR12VJByXT-_4hd4zZtgtOmABarber, E., & Warn, J.
(2005). Leadership in project management: from firefighter to firelighter. Management Decision, 43(7/8), 1032-1039.
doi:10.1108/00251740510610026. Retrieved from http://0-resolver.ebscohost.
A., & Farooq, G. (1999). Team Building and Project Success. Cost Engineering, 41(7), 34. Retrieved from http://0-content.ebscohost.
com.library.acaweb.org/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=2531393&S=R&D=buh&EbscoContent=dGJyMMTo50Sep7I40dvuOLCmr1Cep7NSrqa4SLCWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGqsUu2qLFIuePfgeyx43zxClarke, P. A. (2009). Leadership, beyond project management.
Industrial & Commercial Training, 41(4), 187-194. doi:10.1108/00197850910962760. Retrieved from http://0-resolver.ebscohost.com.library.acaweb.
org/openurl?sid=EBSCO:buh&genre=article&issn=00197858&ISBN=&volume=41&issue=4&date=20090801&spage=187&pages=187-194&title=Industrial%20&%20Commercial%20Training&atitle=Leadership%2C%20beyond%20project%20management.&aulast=Clarke%2C%20Prudence%20A.&id=DOI:10.1108/00197850910962760Claudio, D., & Krishnamurthy, A.
(2009). Kanban-based pull systems with advance demand information. International Journal Of Production Research, 47(12), 3139. doi:10.1080/00207540701739589. Retrieved from – http://0-content.ebscohost.com.
library.acaweb.org/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=38028700&S=R&D=buh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7M40dvuOLCmr1Cep7JSs664SK6WxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGqsUu2qLFIuePfgeyx43zxDavis, R., & Smith, R. G.
(1983). Negotiation as a metaphor for distributed problem solving. Artificial intelligence, 20(1), 63-109. Retrieved from: https://www.
sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0004370283900152Dumitrache, N., & Gica, E. (2011). Best Practices for R&D Project Management: Team Building. Bulletin Of The University Of Agricultural Sciences & Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Horticulture, 68(2), 58. Retrieved from http://journals.
usamvcluj.ro/index.php/horticulture/article/view/7060/6321Gidel, T., Gautier, R., & Duchamp, R. (2005). Decision-making framework methodology: an original approach to project risk management in new product design.
Journal Of Engineering Design, 16(1), 1-23. doi:10.1080/09544820512331325238. Retrieved from -http://0-content.ebscohost.com.
asp?T=P&P=AN&K=16111161&S=R&D=a9h&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7M40dvuOLCmr1Cep7JSrq64S7aWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGqsUu2qLFIuePfgeyx43zxGirmscheid, G., & Brockmann, C. (2010). Inter- and Intraorganizational Trust in International Construction Joint Ventures. Journal Of Construction Engineering & Management, 136(3), 353-360. doi:10.
1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000142 Retrieved from::http://0-eds.b.ebscohost.com.library.acaweb.
org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=15fc91ea-4cb3-4e82-b2c7-a9ad3d05250c%40pdc-v-sessmgr06 Glovis, Michael J,M.B.A., D.B.A.
, Cole, M. L., PhD., & Stavros, J. M., D.
M. (2014). SOAR and motivation as mediators of the relationship between flow and project success. Organization Development Journal, 32(3), 57-73. Retrieved from https://0-search-proquest-com.library.acaweb.org/docview/1624967037?accountid=9864 Retrieved from: http://0-resolver.
org/openurl?sid=EBSCO%3apsyh&genre=article&issn=08896402&ISBN=&volume=32&issue=3&date=20140901&spage=57&pages=57-73&title=Organization+Development+Journal&atitle=SOAR+and+motivation+as+mediators+of+the+relationship+between+Flow+and+project+success.&aulast=Glovis%2c+Michael+J.&id=DOI%3a&site=ftf-liveHeidi K., G.
(2012). Performance Pressure as a Double-edged Sword: Enhancing Team Motivation but Undermining the Use of Team Knowledge. Administrative Science Quarterly, (1), 1. Retrieved from: http://0-content.
asp?T=P&P=AN&K=76538842&S=R&D=buh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7M40dvuOLCmr1Cep7FSr6e4SbCWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGqsUu2qLFIuePfgeyx43zxHenri Barki; Jon Hartwick. In: MIS Quarterly. 25(2):195-228; The Society for Information Management and The Management Information Systems Research Center of the University of Minnesota, and The Association for Information Systems, 2001. Language: English, Database: JSTOR Journals Retrieved from:http://0-content.ebscohost.com.library.acaweb.
org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=9dc8b9652f174818-8b75-8cff99fb34e6%40pdc-v-sessmgr02Jennings, N. R., Faratin, P., Lomuscio, A. R., Parsons, S.
, Wooldridge, M. J., & Sierra, C. (2001). Retrieved from: https://link.springer.
com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1008746126376Klopotan, I., Mjeda, T., & Kure?i?, P. (2018). Exploring the motivation of employees in a firm: A case-study. Business Systems Research, 9(1), 151-160. doi:http://0-dx.
2478/bsrj-2018-0012 Retrieved from: http://0-resolver.ebscohost.com.
library.acaweb.org/openurl?sid=EBSCO:edsdoj&genre=article&issn=18479375&ISBN=&volume=9&issue=1&date=20180301&spage=151&pages=151-160&title=Business%20Systems%20Research,%20Vol%209,%20Iss%201,%20Pp%20151-160%20(2018)&atitle=Exploring%20the%20Motivation%20of%20Employees%20in%20a%20Firm%3A%20A%20Case-Study&aulast=Klopotan%20Igor&id=DOI:10.2478/bsrj-2018-0012Kock, A., & Georg Gemünden, H. (2016).
Antecedents to Decision-Making Quality and Agility in Innovation Portfolio Management. Journal Of Product Innovation Management, 33(6), 670-686c doi:10.1111/jpim.12336. Retrieved From:http://0-content.ebscohost.com.library.
acaweb.org/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=118526971&S=R&D=buh&EbscoContent=dGJyMMTo50Sep7I40dvuOLCmr1Cep7NSsaq4TLeWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGqsUu2qLFIuePfgeyx43zxMcNay, I. (2007). Values, Principles and Integrity: Academic and Professional Standards in Higher Education. Higher Education Management And Policy, 19(3), 34-57.Retrieved from : http://0-eds.b.ebscohost.com.library.acaweb.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=7f048f0b-5602-4413-8473-0c1f76167001%40pdc-v-sessmgr04 Napier N, Keil M, Tan F. IT project managers’ construction of successful project management practice: a repertory grid investigation. InformationSystems Journal serial online. May 2009;19(3):255-282. Available from: Business Source Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 15, 2018 Retrieved from: http://0-eds.b.ebscohost.com.library.acaweb.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&sid=9990c183-59c5-48b6-b83a-3939d9edd607%40sessionmgr103 Pidgeon, K. (2017). The Keys for Success: Leadership Core Competencies. Journal Of Trauma Nursing, 24(6), 338-341. doi:10.1097/JTN.0000000000000322. Retrieved from – http://0-content.ebscohost.com.library.acaweb.org/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=126345329&S=R&D=c8h&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7M40dvuOLCmr1Cep7JSsam4S7WWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGqsUu2qLFIuePfgeyx43zxPretorius, S., Steyn, H., & Bond-Barnard, T. J. (2017). EXPLORING PROJECT-RELATED FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE LEADERSHIP STYLES AND THEIR EFFECT ON PROJECT PERFORMANCE: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK. South African Journal Of Industrial Engineering, 28(4), 95-108. doi:10.7166/28-4-1778 Retrieved from: Roland, B., & Jean, T. (2003). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. The Review Of Economic Studies, (3), 489.Retrieved from: http://0-content.ebscohost.com.library.acaweb.org/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=10193301&S=R&D=buh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7M40dvuOLCmr1Cep69SsK64S6%2BWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGqsUu2qLFIuePfgeyx43zxSmit, M., Bond-Barnard, T., Steyn, H., & Fabris-Rotelli, I. (2017). Email communication in project management: A bane or a blessing?. SA Journal of Information Management, 19(1), 10 pages. doi: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajim.v19i1.826 Retrieved from: https://sajim.co.za/index.php/sajim/article/view/826/1135Srem?ev, N., ?osi?, I., Ani?i?, Z., Lazarevi?, M., & Gechevska, V. (2015). PROCEDURE PHASES FOR CONFIGURATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT. Annals Of DAAAM & Proceedings, 26(1), 0478-0482. doi:10.2507/26th.daaam.proceedings.063 Retrived from – http://0-content.ebscohost.com.library.acaweb.org/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=116328875&S=R&D=a9h&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSep7M40dvuOLCmr1Cep7NSrqi4TbSWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGqsUu2qLFIuePfgeyx43zxZhikun, D., & Fungfai, N. (2010). Personal Construct-Based Factors Affecting Interpersonal Trust in a Project Design Team. Journal Of Construction Engineering & Management, 136(2), 227-234. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000124 Retrieved from::http://0-eds.b.ebscohost.com.library.acaweb.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=f4ab3cfa-3719-4b61-81b2-90679d9db2bd%40pdc-v-sessmgr03 Zulch, B. (2014). Communication: The Foundation of Project Management. Procedia Technology, 16(CENTERIS 2014 – Conference on Enterprise Information Systems / ProjMAN 2014 – International Conference on Project Management / HCIST 2014 – International Conference on Health and Social Care Information Systems and Technologies), 1000-1009. doi:10.1016/j.protcy.2014.10.054 Retrieved from: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S2212017314002813/1-s2.0-S2212017314002813-main.pdf?_tid=2d2ad6ac-e055-47ba-ba5d-df4ba247d12a&acdnat=1537022476_9bf00e6e7f86f738d417b9c80e09c833