Student Name Sany dumrakoti chhetri Student Number 456903715 Unit Code/s

Student Name Sany dumrakoti chhetri Student Number 456903715
Unit Code/s & Name/s HLTENN011 – Implement and monitor care for a person with acute health problems
Assessment Type ? Other -Written answers
Assessment Name Written knowledge demonstration Assessment Task No. AT1
Assessment Due Date September 9 Date submitted 09/09/2018
Assessor Name Amelia Herbert
Student Declaration: I declare that this assessment is my own work. Any ideas and comments made by other people have been acknowledged as references. I understand that if this statement is found to be false, it will be regarded as misconduct and will be subject to disciplinary action as outlined in the TAFE Queensland Student Rules. I understand that by emailing or submitting this assessment electronically, I agree to this Declaration in lieu of a written signature.

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Instructions to Student General Instructions:
Complete the following questions to demonstrate knowledge required to effectively care for a client with an acute condition.

All answers where applicable must include APA referencing both in text and in a reference list.

Assessment Criteria:
To achieve a satisfactory result, your assessor will be looking for your ability to demonstrate the following key skills/tasks/knowledge to an acceptable industry standard.

Number of Attempts:
You will receive up to two (2) attempts at this assessment task. Should your 1st attempt be unsatisfactory (U), your teacher will provide feedback and discuss the relevant sections / questions with you and will arrange a due date for the submission of your 2nd attempt. If your 2ndsubmission is unsatisfactory (U), or you fail to submit a 2nd attempt, you will receive an overall unsatisfactory result for this assessment task. Only one re-assessment attempt may be granted for each assessment task.For more information, refer to the Student Rules.
Submission details Copy the questions into a word document. Type your responses and save your work on your desk top or USB with the following name:
your surname _your first name._AS1
Example: Smith_John_HLTENN011_AS1
Upload your submission by clicking on the HLTENN011 Assessment Task 1 Submit tab on CONNECT.

Note to Student An overview of all Assessment Tasks relevant to this unit is located in the Unit Study Guide.
You will be expected to use journal articles, textbooks and appropriate web sites. All referencing is to be formatted using the APA referencing style..

Provide a definition and 2 possible causes for each of the following health conditions:
Health Condition Definition State 2 (two) possible causes of each condition
Angina Angina is also known as chest pain or angina pectoris when a part of heart muscle is not able to get enough oxygen and blood due to narrowed artery or stopping the muscle from properly functioning. High blood pressure
Smoking
Acute neurological disorder Cellulitis Renal Calculi Myocardial Infarction Also known as heart attack, it occurs when blood flow stops to a part of the heart muscle causing damage High blood cholesterol, excessive fluid intake
Sepsis/Shock Deep Vein Thrombosis Haemorrhage
List the 3 types of burns and give a brief description of each type
List the 3 classifications of burns and provide a brief description of each.

Burns are differ from the types and severity. Usually there are three types of burns they are as follows:
First degree : it includes epidermis which is outer layer of the skin results in pain and reddening of epidermis. It can be treated with skin products like antibiotic ointment and pain medication ( acetaminophen)or aloe vera cream
Second degree: this is also kmnown as partial thickness burns which affect the dermis(lower layer of skin) and epidermis. Sign and symptoms will be like pain, redness, swelling and blistering. For this burns to treat people need to see a doctor, then it can be treated with antibiotic cream or ointments which will prescribed by doctor.

Thirddegree:this is the severe types of burns where burns will be full thick. It goes through te dermis and affect deeper tissues which result in white or blackened skin which may be numb. To treat this burns IV fluids, antibiotics are needed. It coverslarge part of the body so more intensive treatments will be needed.

There are four types of burns they are as follows:
Thermal burns: it occurs when we come in contact with something hot like flames, fire, hot objects like cooking pans, irons etc. treatment depends on the location and severity of the burns. To treat this burns we can use water to cool burned area, pain relief medicine like acetaminophen or ibuprofen, Burn cream.
chemical burns: if we are come in contact with chemical like ammonia, chlorine, bleach or acid then our skin will get burn or gets irritant. Treatment include rinse burned area by water, if the burn is larger then call 911 and go to hospital. Iv fluids to regulate body temperature and speed healing, antibiotics to prevent infection, wound cleaning and removing dead skin or tissues.
radiation burns: those patient who have cancer and undergoing radiation therapy may suffer from this radiation burn. High- energy radiation is used to kill cancerous cells. If people are frequently receiving this therapy then skin cells may not have enough time to regenerate, and shores or ulcers may develop then to treat this burns cleaning and moisturise the wounds, avoid sunlight,wear loose cloth and wear bandage over the wound.

Friction burns:this occurs due to to skin repeatedly rubs against the hard surface, rough surface. Friction burns are first degree and by applying moisturise cream it can heal within 3-6 days. But if burns is serious then seek for medical care immediately.

electrical burns: it happens when a body come in contact with the electric current. We can get injured if a strong jolt enter to our body because our internal system is not resistance to electricity. Electricity can affect internal tissues and muscles and have long term negative effects on our health. To treat this Antibiotics are needed to prevent infection, skin grafting (covering the wound with healthy skin from another area of the body).

WebMD pain caused by burns April 30 2017 https://www.webmd.com/pain-management/guide/pain-caused-by-burnsDefine dehydration and list 3 common causes. In your answer include at least one common cause for an adult and a child.

Dehydration occurs when we lose or use more fluids than we take in and our body doesn’t have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions. If the losen fluids can’t be replace then normally we can say we are dehydrated. Dehydration is mostly dangerous in the young children and older adults.

Most common causes of dehydration are as follows:
Diarrhoea and vomiting in young children: it causes huge loss of fluids and electrolytes in a short period of time.
Excessive sweating: if we sweat then we loose water. Hot humid weather increases the amount we sweat and amount of fluid loose.

Increased urination: it may be due to undiagnosed and uncontrolled diabetes. Some medicines like diuretics also lead to dehydration because it cause urinate more.

Mayo clinic feb 15 2018 https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dehydration/symptoms-causes/syc-20354086List four (4) different types of fractures.

Fracture is a broken bone. A bone is completely or partially broken in a number of pieces. Four types of fracture are as mentioned below:
Open, compound fracture: In this fracture skin is piereced by the bone or by the blow and breaks the skin at the time of the fracture. Bone may or may not be visible in the wound
Transverse fracture: It is know as a horizontal fracture line where bone breaks at 90- degree angle to the long axis of the bone. To treat this they need orthopaedic trauma surgeon.

Comminuted fracture: when the bone is shatters or breaks into more than three pieces.

Oblique fracture: it is chacterized by a break which is curved or at an angle to the bone. A sharp blow which comes from an angle may cause oblique fracture.

Greenstick fracture: this fracture are mostly occurred in children where their bones yet to fully develop and break with significant force causing bone to bend. Sometimes outer side of bone bends and rest of the bone are unbroken.

List three of the most common types of head injuries.

Three most common types of head injury are as mentioned below:
Scalp lacerations: these are know as external head trauma where scalp is injured which contains many blood vessels. Most scalp lacerations are associated with profuse bleeding.even a small wound scalp will bleed significantly.major complication are infection and blood loss.

Skull fractures: it is frequently occur with head trauma. It has three different types they are linear or depressed, simple or compound and closed or open. This all types and severity are depend on the velocity, shape and direction of the injuring agent.

Head trauma: this are also known as brain trauma and categorized into diffuse or focal (localised).

Diffuse injury includes concussion, diffuse axonal injury).
Concussion is known as sudden transient mechanical head injurywhere there is disruption of neural cavity and change in the loss of consciousness.

Diffuse axonal injury: Widespread axonal damage which includes white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainsteam.

Focal injury are the minor to severe and can be localised to the area of an injury.it consists of contusion, lacerations, haematomas.

From the list below (A) place each principle in the A list next to its matching terminology in the B list
A
Elective surgery Amputation Tonsillectomy Cataract Extraction
Emergency Surgery Peripheral nerve block Appendectomy Epidural
General Anaesthetic Open reduction Laparotomy Craniotomy
Local Anaesthetic Hip replacement Hysterectomy Prostatectomy
A B
General anaesthesia anaesthetic is injected into the immediate area to be operated on
Open reduction surgical procedure to restore a fracture or dislocation to the correct alignment
Epidural an injection of a local anesthetic into the space outside the dura mater of the spinal cord
Hip replacement Removal of hip joint to be replaced with a artificial joint
Appendectomy Surgery to remove appendix
Elective surgery non-emergency surgery
Tonsillectomy Surgery to remove tonsils
medically induced state of unconsciousness
Amputation surgical removal of all or part of a limb or extremity
Laparotomy surgical incision into the abdominal cavity
Prostatectomy operation to remove all or part of the prostate gland
Emergency surgery surgery to treat trauma or acute illness
Hysterectomy operation to remove the uterus
Local anasthetic anaesthetic is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves
Cataract extraction surgery to remove a clouded lens (cataract) from the eye
Craniotomy Operation to expose the brain

Outline three (3) specific nursing care interventions you would perform for each of the following:
Tracheostomy suctioning
Monitor the patients cardiopulmonary status( cyanosis, increased BP, anxiety, pain, respiration, oxygen saturation level, pulse, coughing) before, during and after the suctioning period.

Check their ability swallow, has speech pathology been notified or not.

Check stoma dressing is clean or not.
Ellstrom K: The pulmonary system. In Alspach J (eds): Core curriculum for critical care nursing, ed 6. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2006. Pp 56-58
Underwater seal drainage tube management
Check heart rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, respiration rate. Routine observations should be done.

Chest tubes are painful so pain assessment should be done frequently under the observation of registered nurse and document.

Check air leak for the drainage tube or bag which is chacterized by bubble in the water seal chamber when a patient cough or breathout.

If a patient is strict in a bed rest then encouraged to to change position to promote drainage,
Laws,D; Neville, E; Duffy, J. (2003) BTS guidelines for the insertion of a chest drain. Thorax. 58 (suppll):ii53-ii59.

Intercostal catheter care
Full set of checking vital sign every four fourly within first 24 hours after the procedure has been done.

Check for air leakage because patient may have further complications.

Record the colour of drainage, volume and type or call for RN and document it.

Northern Health The Northern Hospital. (2006). Intercostal Catheter Insertion, Management and Removal. Clinical Education Centre.

Outline three (3) specific nursing care interventions you would undertake in monitoring the care
of a patient with the following medical devices.

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure ( CPAP)

Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure ( BIPAP)

Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) line management

Discuss 3 strategies to reducing the risks associated with immobility (100words)

Discuss 3 elements of nursing care that you as the EN can provide for a patient who has nutrition provided via a peg feeding tube (100words)