Table of Contents A1. 2 A2. 5 A2.
Iv. Introduction. 7 A3.
8 III Introduction. 8 Conclusion. 10 A4. 11 Introduction.
11 Conclusion. 12 A1. I. A group can bedefined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who cometogether to achieve particular objectives. The behavior of individuals ingroups is something more than the sum total of each acting in his or her ownway. In other words, when individuals are in groups, they act differently thanthey do when they are alone.
A group behavior can be stated as a course ofaction a group takes as a family. For example: Strike (Organizational Behavior – Groups, n.d.). II. In our daily lifegroup has been a central part. We belong to many different types of groups Iour daily lives like family, friends, schools, offices etc.
in this case study there are certain featuresor characteristics of a group which are as follows:A) Commongoal or interest: in a group every member share commoninterest or goals. For example, members of a production department constitute agroup that is sustained by the mutual interest of the members. The shared goal determinesand identifies that all the members of the group have common goals. B) Interactionand interdependent: in any group there is interaction andinterdependence among the group members either physically or virtually toaccomplish the group goal. For example, coworkers may work side by side onrelated tasks in a work unit.C) Collectivestructure: groups have collective identity not the sum ofindividual members.
Perhaps, it is the awareness of each other that mostclearly differentiates a group from n aggregation of individuals. Groups arecomposed of people who recognize each other as a member of their group and candistinguish these individuals from non-members. D) Astable structure: groups have a defines structure whichgives relationship that keeps group members together the stable functioning asunit. It clarifies roles, authority and responsibility of each group memberswhich is important to accomplish group goal.E) Collectionof two or more people: groups are the collection of two ormore people.
Groups are composed of two or more persons in social interaction.One plus on makes a group and groups and groups form an organization. A singleperson cannot form a group as it at least requires two people for groupinformation (Note on Group- Concept, Characteristics and Types, n.d.). III. A group is formalwhen it is purposely designed to accomplish an organizational objective ortask.
Here in the following points I will be discussing the functions of aformal organization. A) Establishingworking relationship: Establishing working relationship: In the formalorganization, the primary goal is to establish an effective workingrelationship and to establish a clear chain of command. The effective workrelationship is the most important thing for the goals.
B) Create groupcohesiveness: creating sense of cohesiveness and belongings among the group ofthe personal working in a formal organization. The employee’s interpersonalinteraction is very important for the function for the functioning of anorganization. C) OrganizationalDevelopment: Establishing working relationship: In the formal organization, theprimary goal is to establish an effective working relationship and to establisha clear chain of command. The effective work relationship is the most importantthing for the goals.Iv.Groups are a common arrangement in today’s business environments. Any managerwho works with or supervises groups should be familiar with how they developover time.
Managers must be able to recognize and understand group behavior atits various stages. And these are the five stages of group development.A) Forming:Thefirst stage of group development is known as the forming stage. Forming stageis when the group is just formed and members are formally placed together in awork group. Conflict, controversy and personal opinions are avoided even thoughmembers are beginning to form impressions of each other and gain anunderstanding of what the group will do together.B) Storming:The second stage of group development is known as the storming stage.
This is thestage where people start to push against the boundaries established in theforming stage. This is the stage where many teams fail.C) Norming:Once a group receives the clarity that it so desperately needs, it can move onto the third stage of group development, known as the norming stage. Thisis when people start to resolve their differences, appreciate colleagues’strengths, and respect your authority as a leader.D) Performing:atits peak, the group moves into the fourth stage of group development, known asthe performing stage.
This is the stage when hard work leads, without friction,to the achievement of the team’s goal. The structures and processes that youhave set up support this well. As leader, you can delegate much of your work,and you can concentrate on developing team membersE) Adjourning:Manyteams will reach this stage eventually. For example, project teams exist foronly a fixed period, and even permanent teams may be disbanded throughorganizational restructuring.
Team members who like routine, or who havedeveloped close working relationships with colleagues, may find this stagedifficult, particularly if their future now looks uncertain (Top 5 Stages of Group Development (With Diagram), n.d.).
A2. I. An individualreacts to any situation or responds to instructions in particular fashion, thatfashion or style is caused due to learning. Learning can be defined as thepermanent change in behavior due todirect and indirect experience. It means change in behavior, attitude due toeducation and training, practice and experience. It is completed by acquisitionof knowledge and skills, which are relatively permanent (Organizational Behavior – Learning, n.d.
).II. Group decisionmaking is a participatory process in which multiple individuals works togetherto come up with a final decision. The number of people involved in a groupvaries greatly. because if there are more people there will more disagreements,different opinions and ideas. As so it would be difficult and will take time tocome up with one decision. The nature and composition of groups, demographicmakeup, structure, and purpose, all effects their functioning to some degree.As they are from different countries, cultures and traditions their thinkingcan be very different too.
Their purpose and goal could be very different.Although it can affect the way they lead to conclusion. the externalcontingencies faced like time pressure and conflicting goals affects thedevelopment and effectiveness of the committee’s action. As mentioned in thecase study, Jose wanted to make a new design because his president said to. hewas afraid that the council presidents might be angry if the committeedisagrees as so the opinion of Jose is affected by the council presidents. III. Learning is one ofthe condition of effective business management. This approach requires from thecompany openness for charges – modifying established ways of acting, analyzingand improving existed procedures and willingness to proper responding onunusual and unpredictable situations.
Companies must be prepared to maintainadaptability and flexibility in the changing world. Organizational learning isnot a complicated concept, but it stands out compared with older, brute forcelearning techniques that were previously used. To learn is to acquireknowledge or skill. Learning also may involve a change in attitude or behavior.Children learn to identify objects at an early age; teenagers may learn toimprove study habits; and adults can learn to solve complex problems.
Pilotsand aviation maintenance technicians (AMTs) need to acquire the higher levelsof knowledge and skill, including the ability to exercise judgment and solveproblems. The challenge for the aviation instructor is to understand how peoplelearn, and more importantly, to be able to apply that knowledge to the learningenvironmentLearning theory may be described as a bodyof principles advocated by psychologists and educators to explain how people acquireskills, knowledge, and attitudes. Various branches of learning theory are usedin formal training programs to improve and accelerate the learning process. Keyconcepts such as desired learning outcomes, objectives of the training, anddepth of training also apply. When properly integrated, learning principles,derived from theories, can be useful to aviation instructors and developers ofinstructional programs for both pilots and maintenance technicians (The Learning Process, n.d.). A2.
Iv. Introduction Anyrelatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Natureof learning means the characteristics features of learning. Learning involveschange; it may or may not guarantee improvement. It should be permanent innature, that is learning for lifelong. The change in behavior is the result ofexperience, practice and training. Learning is reflected through behavior. A) ClassicalConditioning: this theory is a learning process in whichbehavior is sensitive to, or controlled by its outcomes.
Example of a child forclassical conditioning: a child may learn to open a box to get a candy inside,or learn to avoid touching hot stove. In comparison, the classical conditioningdevelops a relationship between a stimulus and a behavior.B) Operantconditioning: operant is defined as behavior thatproduces effect.
It is a type of conditioning in which desired voluntarybehavior leads to reward or prevents a punishment. For example, positivereinforcement: a teacher complimenting students when they answer correctly willincrease that behavior.C) SocialLearning Theory: individuals can also learn by observingwhat happens to other people and just by being told about something, as well asby direct experiences. For example, a teenager might learn slang by observingpeers.D) ShapingBehavior: The learning process of individuals takes place on thejob as well as prior to the job.in any organization, mangers will be concernedwith how they can teach employees to behave in the ways that are mostbeneficial to the organization. For example, an employee who chronicallyleaves the office half hour early starts leaving the office only twenty minutesearly, the manager can reinforce his behavior so that it comes more close tothe desired behavior to leave the office in time (Organizational Behavior – Learning, n.
d.). A3.i. Mental states,developed through experience, which are always ready to exert an activeinfluence on an individual’s response to any conditions or circumstances towhich the person has been directed. Attitudes are evaluative statements eitherfavorable or unfavorable concerning objects, people or events and are apersistent tendency to feel and behave in particular way toward some object (Attitudes and Behaviour in Organisations, n.d.
).ii. If I were in Joseposition, I would have done much better and attractive design than the currentdesign. As it may change the other committee member’s decision.
And I willbriefly explain why we need a new design (to make more demand for their brandin market). I will point out the advantages we will get by launching a new onewhile our current design is still in a high rank. I will explain that it willincrease their brand demand in market if they launch a new better design. Asnow the committee has decided to stick with the current design, I can arrange ameeting again and explain these things to change their decision.
I willpersuade them to understand that council presidents want to increase our demandand they believe that we can do it if we launch a new design. III Introductioniii. A leader has gotmultidimensional traits in him which makes him appealing and effective inbehavior. These are some characteristics of good leadership: A) Physicalappearance – a leader must have a pleasing appearance. Physique and health veryimportant for a good leader.B) Intelligence – Aleader should be intelligent enough to examine problems and difficultsituations. He should be analytical who weighs pros and cons and thensummarizes the situation.
Therefore, a positive bent of mind and mature outlookis very important.C) Knowledge of work- A leader should be very precisely knowing the nature of work of hissubordinates because it is then he can win the trust and confidence of hissubordinates. D) Self-confidenceand will-power – Confidence in himself is important to earn the confidence ofthe subordinates. He should be trustworthy and should handle the situationswith full will power (A personality test used by major companies screens leaders for these 18 traits, n.d.).ForJose to become a good leader he should understand the scope of leadership andimportance for scope of business.
A leader cannot have all traits at one time.But a few of their helps in achieving effective results. IV. The nature versusnurture debate is one of the oldest philosophical issues within psychology.
Nature refers to all of the genes and hereditary factors that influence who weare from our physical appearance to our personality characteristics. Nurturerefers to all the environmental variables that impact who we are, including ourearly childhood experiences, how we were raised, our social relationships, andour surroundings culture (What Is Nature vs. Nurture?, n.d.). V. A combination ofinternal and external factors which are integrated to make a person stimulatetowards a certain goal, task or a job. Motivation is the term that we use todescribe why people move towards certain actions and goals but not others.
Psychologists understand that motivation can only be understood throughbehavior. MayoMayo’scontribution to management theory helped pave the way for modern humanrelations management methods. Based on his well-known Hawthorne experiments,Mayo’s management theories grew from his observations of employee productivitylevels under varying environmental conditions. His experiments drew a number ofconclusions about the real source of employee motivation, laying the groundworkfor later approaches to team building and group dynamics. Mayo managementtheory states that employees are motivated far more by relational factors suchas attention and camaraderie than by monetary rewards or environmental factors suchas lighting, humidity, etc (Management Theory of Elton Mayo, n.d.).
MaslowMaslow is bestknown for his theory, the Hierarchy of Needs. Depicted in a pyramid, the theoryexplains the different levels and importance of human psychological andphysical needs. It can be used by business managers to better understandemployee motivation. The general needs in Maslow’s hierarchy includephysiological needs (food and clothing), safety needs (job security), socialneeds (friendship), self- esteem, and self-actualization. Managers must beperceptive and empathetic to their employees—they must listen to what theiremployees’ needs are and work to fulfill them (Employee Needs and Motivation, n.d.).
Herzberg’sTwo-Factor TheoryThis theory alsoknown as the Two Factor theory, or the Motivation-Hygiene theory or the Dualfactor theory was developed by Frederick Herzberg an American psychologist andbehavioral scientist in 1959.This theory revolves around the proposition thattwo kinds of factors can be found in a workplace, one that creates jobsatisfaction and motivates employees and the other that cause dissatisfactionand reduces the morale and drive of employees to work. He theorized that JobSatisfaction and Dissatisfaction are not the polar ends of a same metric butare different independent and different metrics. He stated that the opposite ofsatisfaction was not dissatisfaction but was a lack of satisfaction andsimilarly the opposite of dissatisfaction was not satisfaction but was a lackof dissatisfaction. This proposition was based on his finding that the reasonsfor satisfaction and the causation of dissatisfaction was different things notopposite to one another (Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Theory of Motivation and Hygiene, n.d.).
Conclusion Motivationtheories an important role for managers to achieve their objectives and toincrease the effectiveness of the effectiveness of the employees. A4. IntroductionLeadinga team or group is a real skill that takes time, thought and dedication.Leadership is the most studied aspect of business and organization because itis the one overarching topic that makes the difference between success andfailure. At times it may seem overwhelmingly complex, but by focusing on somefundamentals you will find that you can lead your team with confidence andskill.SheikhaLubna Al-Qasimi was born in Dubai on February 4, 1962.
Her father, Khalid binSultan Al-Qasimi is the ruler of Sharjah Emirate of UAE. She received her highschool certificate from Al-Zahra Secondary School in Sharjah and ranked the 9thin UAE graduates in the same level (UAE, 2012). She went to USA and studiedComputer Sciences in California State University (UAE, 2012). After graduation,she went back to Sharjah to have an executive MBA from the American Universityof Sharjah. Sheikha Lubna also received an honorary doctorate of science fromCalifornia State University (UAE, 2012). In March 2014, she was appointedPresident of Zayed University. As of 2016, she is listed as the 43rd mostpowerful woman in the world by Forbes. HESheikha Lubna bint Khalid bin Sultan Al Qasimi is the Minister of State forTolerance and was previously the Minister of State for InternationalCooperation and Minister of Economic and Planning of the United Arab Emirates(UAE).
Sheikha Lubna holds the distinction of being the first woman to hold aministerial post in the United Arab Emirates. She is also a member of theruling family of Sharjah and the niece to His Highness Dr. Sheikh Sultan binMuhammad Al-Qasimi. TheUAE’s economy, financial markets, and monetary and investment policies havebeen modernized under her leadership. Today, as head of the newly formedministry of foreign trade, Sheikha Lubna travels around the world, negotiatingtrade agreements and attracting overseas investment. She has become one of the best-known ambassadorsfor her country, regularly speaking on major stages, such as the World EconomicForum and the Council on Foreign Relations.
Thewomen of her country point to Sheika Lubna as a source of pride andinspiration—and so do many of the men. She embraces her status as a role model, but insists that the women ofher country have the tools they need to accomplish their dreams: “It is up tous as women to decide…what it is that we can do and not do.” SheikhaLubna was recognized because of her strong presence and constant work ofimproving UAE’s status in a global term. Moreover, the support she gave for women by setting an example of howwoman can become successful and be involved in the decision-making process.
In2010 the US-based Forbes Magazine ranked her as most powerful Arab women andthe world’s 70th most powerful women (Lubna Khalid Al Qasimi, n.d.).Conclusion Leadershipskills approach takes into account the knowledge and abilities that the leaderhas. A leader can learn certain skills and turn himself/herself into aremarkable one.
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