Table of Contents
A2. Iv. Introduction. 7
III Introduction. 8
A group can be
defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come
together to achieve particular objectives. The behavior of individuals in
groups is something more than the sum total of each acting in his or her own
way. In other words, when individuals are in groups, they act differently than
they do when they are alone. A group behavior can be stated as a course of
action a group takes as a family. For example: Strike (Organizational
Behavior – Groups, n.d.).
In our daily life
group has been a central part. We belong to many different types of groups I
our daily lives like family, friends, schools, offices etc. in this case study there are certain features
or characteristics of a group which are as follows:
goal or interest: in a group every member share common
interest or goals. For example, members of a production department constitute a
group that is sustained by the mutual interest of the members. The shared goal determines
and identifies that all the members of the group have common goals.
and interdependent: in any group there is interaction and
interdependence among the group members either physically or virtually to
accomplish the group goal. For example, coworkers may work side by side on
related tasks in a work unit.
structure: groups have collective identity not the sum of
individual members. Perhaps, it is the awareness of each other that most
clearly differentiates a group from n aggregation of individuals. Groups are
composed of people who recognize each other as a member of their group and can
distinguish these individuals from non-members.
stable structure: groups have a defines structure which
gives relationship that keeps group members together the stable functioning as
unit. It clarifies roles, authority and responsibility of each group members
which is important to accomplish group goal.
of two or more people: groups are the collection of two or
more people. Groups are composed of two or more persons in social interaction.
One plus on makes a group and groups and groups form an organization. A single
person cannot form a group as it at least requires two people for group
information (Note on
Group- Concept, Characteristics and Types, n.d.).
A group is formal
when it is purposely designed to accomplish an organizational objective or
task. Here in the following points I will be discussing the functions of a
working relationship: Establishing working relationship: In the formal
organization, the primary goal is to establish an effective working
relationship and to establish a clear chain of command. The effective work
relationship is the most important thing for the goals.
cohesiveness: creating sense of cohesiveness and belongings among the group of
the personal working in a formal organization. The employee’s interpersonal
interaction is very important for the function for the functioning of an
Development: Establishing working relationship: In the formal organization, the
primary goal is to establish an effective working relationship and to establish
a clear chain of command. The effective work relationship is the most important
thing for the goals.
Groups are a common arrangement in today’s business environments. Any manager
who works with or supervises groups should be familiar with how they develop
over time. Managers must be able to recognize and understand group behavior at
its various stages. And these are the five stages of group development.
first stage of group development is known as the forming stage. Forming stage
is when the group is just formed and members are formally placed together in a
work group. Conflict, controversy and personal opinions are avoided even though
members are beginning to form impressions of each other and gain an
understanding of what the group will do together.
The second stage of group development is known as the storming stage. This is the
stage where people start to push against the boundaries established in the
forming stage. This is the stage where many teams fail.
Once a group receives the clarity that it so desperately needs, it can move on
to the third stage of group development, known as the norming stage. This
is when people start to resolve their differences, appreciate colleagues’
strengths, and respect your authority as a leader.
its peak, the group moves into the fourth stage of group development, known as
the performing stage. This is the stage when hard work leads, without friction,
to the achievement of the team’s goal. The structures and processes that you
have set up support this well. As leader, you can delegate much of your work,
and you can concentrate on developing team members
teams will reach this stage eventually. For example, project teams exist for
only a fixed period, and even permanent teams may be disbanded through
organizational restructuring. Team members who like routine, or who have
developed close working relationships with colleagues, may find this stage
difficult, particularly if their future now looks uncertain (Top 5
Stages of Group Development (With Diagram), n.d.).
reacts to any situation or responds to instructions in particular fashion, that
fashion or style is caused due to learning. Learning can be defined as the
change in behavior due to
direct and indirect experience. It means change in behavior, attitude due to
education and training, practice and experience. It is completed by acquisition
of knowledge and skills, which are relatively permanent (Organizational
Behavior – Learning, n.d.).
making is a participatory process in which multiple individuals works together
to come up with a final decision. The number of people involved in a group
varies greatly. because if there are more people there will more disagreements,
different opinions and ideas. As so it would be difficult and will take time to
come up with one decision. The nature and composition of groups, demographic
makeup, structure, and purpose, all effects their functioning to some degree.
As they are from different countries, cultures and traditions their thinking
can be very different too. Their purpose and goal could be very different.
Although it can affect the way they lead to conclusion. the external
contingencies faced like time pressure and conflicting goals affects the
development and effectiveness of the committee’s action. As mentioned in the
case study, Jose wanted to make a new design because his president said to. he
was afraid that the council presidents might be angry if the committee
disagrees as so the opinion of Jose is affected by the council presidents.
Learning is one of
the condition of effective business management. This approach requires from the
company openness for charges – modifying established ways of acting, analyzing
and improving existed procedures and willingness to proper responding on
unusual and unpredictable situations. Companies must be prepared to maintain
adaptability and flexibility in the changing world. Organizational learning is
not a complicated concept, but it stands out compared with older, brute force
learning techniques that were previously used.
To learn is to acquire
knowledge or skill. Learning also may involve a change in attitude or behavior.
Children learn to identify objects at an early age; teenagers may learn to
improve study habits; and adults can learn to solve complex problems. Pilots
and aviation maintenance technicians (AMTs) need to acquire the higher levels
of knowledge and skill, including the ability to exercise judgment and solve
problems. The challenge for the aviation instructor is to understand how people
learn, and more importantly, to be able to apply that knowledge to the learning
Learning theory may be described as a body
of principles advocated by psychologists and educators to explain how people acquire
skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Various branches of learning theory are used
in formal training programs to improve and accelerate the learning process. Key
concepts such as desired learning outcomes, objectives of the training, and
depth of training also apply. When properly integrated, learning principles,
derived from theories, can be useful to aviation instructors and developers of
instructional programs for both pilots and maintenance technicians (The Learning Process, n.d.).
relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Nature
of learning means the characteristics features of learning. Learning involves
change; it may or may not guarantee improvement. It should be permanent in
nature, that is learning for lifelong. The change in behavior is the result of
experience, practice and training. Learning is reflected through behavior.
Conditioning: this theory is a learning process in which
behavior is sensitive to, or controlled by its outcomes. Example of a child for
classical conditioning: a child may learn to open a box to get a candy inside,
or learn to avoid touching hot stove. In comparison, the classical conditioning
develops a relationship between a stimulus and a behavior.
conditioning: operant is defined as behavior that
produces effect. It is a type of conditioning in which desired voluntary
behavior leads to reward or prevents a punishment. For example, positive
reinforcement: a teacher complimenting students when they answer correctly will
increase that behavior.
Learning Theory: individuals can also learn by observing
what happens to other people and just by being told about something, as well as
by direct experiences. For example, a teenager might learn slang by observing
Behavior: The learning process of individuals takes place on the
job as well as prior to the job.in any organization, mangers will be concerned
with how they can teach employees to behave in the ways that are most
beneficial to the organization. For example, an employee who chronically
leaves the office half hour early starts leaving the office only twenty minutes
early, the manager can reinforce his behavior so that it comes more close to
the desired behavior to leave the office in time (Organizational
Behavior – Learning, n.d.).
developed through experience, which are always ready to exert an active
influence on an individual’s response to any conditions or circumstances to
which the person has been directed. Attitudes are evaluative statements either
favorable or unfavorable concerning objects, people or events and are a
persistent tendency to feel and behave in particular way toward some object (Attitudes and Behaviour in Organisations, n.d.).
If I were in Jose
position, I would have done much better and attractive design than the current
design. As it may change the other committee member’s decision. And I will
briefly explain why we need a new design (to make more demand for their brand
in market). I will point out the advantages we will get by launching a new one
while our current design is still in a high rank. I will explain that it will
increase their brand demand in market if they launch a new better design. As
now the committee has decided to stick with the current design, I can arrange a
meeting again and explain these things to change their decision. I will
persuade them to understand that council presidents want to increase our demand
and they believe that we can do it if we launch a new design.
A leader has got
multidimensional traits in him which makes him appealing and effective in
behavior. These are some characteristics of good leadership:
appearance – a leader must have a pleasing appearance. Physique and health very
important for a good leader.
Intelligence – A
leader should be intelligent enough to examine problems and difficult
situations. He should be analytical who weighs pros and cons and then
summarizes the situation. Therefore, a positive bent of mind and mature outlook
is very important.
Knowledge of work
– A leader should be very precisely knowing the nature of work of his
subordinates because it is then he can win the trust and confidence of his
and will-power – Confidence in himself is important to earn the confidence of
the subordinates. He should be trustworthy and should handle the situations
with full will power (A
personality test used by major companies screens leaders for these 18 traits,
Jose to become a good leader he should understand the scope of leadership and
importance for scope of business. A leader cannot have all traits at one time.
But a few of their helps in achieving effective results.
The nature versus
nurture debate is one of the oldest philosophical issues within psychology.
Nature refers to all of the genes and hereditary factors that influence who we
are from our physical appearance to our personality characteristics. Nurture
refers to all the environmental variables that impact who we are, including our
early childhood experiences, how we were raised, our social relationships, and
our surroundings culture (What Is
Nature vs. Nurture?, n.d.).
A combination of
internal and external factors which are integrated to make a person stimulate
towards a certain goal, task or a job. Motivation is the term that we use to
describe why people move towards certain actions and goals but not others.
Psychologists understand that motivation can only be understood through
contribution to management theory helped pave the way for modern human
relations management methods. Based on his well-known Hawthorne experiments,
Mayo’s management theories grew from his observations of employee productivity
levels under varying environmental conditions. His experiments drew a number of
conclusions about the real source of employee motivation, laying the groundwork
for later approaches to team building and group dynamics. Mayo management
theory states that employees are motivated far more by relational factors such
as attention and camaraderie than by monetary rewards or environmental factors such
as lighting, humidity, etc (Management
Theory of Elton Mayo, n.d.).
Maslow is best
known for his theory, the Hierarchy of Needs. Depicted in a pyramid, the theory
explains the different levels and importance of human psychological and
physical needs. It can be used by business managers to better understand
employee motivation. The general needs in Maslow’s hierarchy include
physiological needs (food and clothing), safety needs (job security), social
needs (friendship), self- esteem, and self-actualization. Managers must be
perceptive and empathetic to their employees—they must listen to what their
employees’ needs are and work to fulfill them (Employee Needs and Motivation, n.d.).
This theory also
known as the Two Factor theory, or the Motivation-Hygiene theory or the Dual
factor theory was developed by Frederick Herzberg an American psychologist and
behavioral scientist in 1959.This theory revolves around the proposition that
two kinds of factors can be found in a workplace, one that creates job
satisfaction and motivates employees and the other that cause dissatisfaction
and reduces the morale and drive of employees to work. He theorized that Job
Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction are not the polar ends of a same metric but
are different independent and different metrics. He stated that the opposite of
satisfaction was not dissatisfaction but was a lack of satisfaction and
similarly the opposite of dissatisfaction was not satisfaction but was a lack
of dissatisfaction. This proposition was based on his finding that the reasons
for satisfaction and the causation of dissatisfaction was different things not
opposite to one another (Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Theory of Motivation and Hygiene, n.d.).
theories an important role for managers to achieve their objectives and to
increase the effectiveness of the effectiveness of the employees.
a team or group is a real skill that takes time, thought and dedication.
Leadership is the most studied aspect of business and organization because it
is the one overarching topic that makes the difference between success and
failure. At times it may seem overwhelmingly complex, but by focusing on some
fundamentals you will find that you can lead your team with confidence and
Lubna Al-Qasimi was born in Dubai on February 4, 1962. Her father, Khalid bin
Sultan Al-Qasimi is the ruler of Sharjah Emirate of UAE. She received her high
school certificate from Al-Zahra Secondary School in Sharjah and ranked the 9th
in UAE graduates in the same level (UAE, 2012). She went to USA and studied
Computer Sciences in California State University (UAE, 2012). After graduation,
she went back to Sharjah to have an executive MBA from the American University
of Sharjah. Sheikha Lubna also received an honorary doctorate of science from
California State University (UAE, 2012). In March 2014, she was appointed
President of Zayed University. As of 2016, she is listed as the 43rd most
powerful woman in the world by Forbes.
Sheikha Lubna bint Khalid bin Sultan Al Qasimi is the Minister of State for
Tolerance and was previously the Minister of State for International
Cooperation and Minister of Economic and Planning of the United Arab Emirates
(UAE). Sheikha Lubna holds the distinction of being the first woman to hold a
ministerial post in the United Arab Emirates. She is also a member of the
ruling family of Sharjah and the niece to His Highness Dr. Sheikh Sultan bin
UAE’s economy, financial markets, and monetary and investment policies have
been modernized under her leadership. Today, as head of the newly formed
ministry of foreign trade, Sheikha Lubna travels around the world, negotiating
trade agreements and attracting overseas investment. She has become one of the best-known ambassadors
for her country, regularly speaking on major stages, such as the World Economic
Forum and the Council on Foreign Relations.
women of her country point to Sheika Lubna as a source of pride and
inspiration—and so do many of the men.
She embraces her status as a role model, but insists that the women of
her country have the tools they need to accomplish their dreams: “It is up to
us as women to decide…what it is that we can do and not do.”
Lubna was recognized because of her strong presence and constant work of
improving UAE’s status in a global term.
Moreover, the support she gave for women by setting an example of how
woman can become successful and be involved in the decision-making process. In
2010 the US-based Forbes Magazine ranked her as most powerful Arab women and
the world’s 70th most powerful women (Lubna
Khalid Al Qasimi, n.d.).
skills approach takes into account the knowledge and abilities that the leader
has. A leader can learn certain skills and turn himself/herself into a
A personality test used by major companies screens
leaders for these 18 traits.
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