Technical analysis for implementing BS-VI Automotive Emissions Norms with respect to electric vehicle production by 2020 in India
Devendra Vashist, 1 Farhan Mukhtar, 2
1,2,Automobile Engineering Department
Manav Rachna International University
Faridabad, Haryana, India.
Corresponding email: [email protected]
Automotive vehicles emit several exhaust gases and pollutants. Pollutants include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM, mostly soot) & oxides of Sulphur (SOx). Government of India has decided to implement BS Norms by April 2020 where in stringent regulation have to be followed / implemented by the Automotive Industry. Another direction in which auto sector is moving is the electric mobility, which is in the evolutions phase. In this research a comparative study in terms of financial and social-economic is made between challenges to be faced by auto sector in the production of Electric vehicles and BS VI Compliance vehicles. For the analysis E2O from company Mahindra & Mahindra and Alto 800 from Maruti Suzuki brand which are having many similarities (Size and Volume) but powered by two different sources are taken as the reference. From the analysis it is observed that shorter mileage covered in single charge / frequent battery recharging, frequent maintenance and least charging infrastructure are the areas which have to be looked into for enhancing the suitability of electric vehicle on the Indian roads. Lithium Ion Battery which is compact form of storing energy is found to least suitable with respect to Indian perspective because of very less reserves of metal lithium in India. Sodium Ion battery is another option on which Indian research agencies are working. For Alto 800 compliance with BS VI norms changes has to be incorporated. Lean Electronic Fuel Injection System (LEFIS) with few design changes, along with Exhaust Gas recirculation are the two technologies which have to be fitted in Alto 800 to make it BS VI Compliance. This will increase the cost of the product. Also oil refineries has to ensure proper distribution of BS VI compliant fuel for this change, which will again put pressure on oil marketing companies towards upward movement of fuel prices.
Based on the analysis it is recommended that the industry should adopt a hybrid model where in vehicle with conventional fuel engine also has an option of electric drive.
Keywords: Bharat Stage (BS) Emission Norms, Lean Electronic Fuel Injection System (LEFIS), Exhaust Gas recirculation (EGR), Electric Vehicle, Batteries, Controller.
The major sources of air pollution are flue gases, emission form the refineries and factories are kept on one side, and exhaust from automobiles on the other side. The automobile exhausts are responsible for more than 75% of total air pollution. The I.C engine exhaust contains toxic pollutants in the form of NOx .If the concentration of these gases exceeds 100ppm in an enclosed space it can become the cause of death .Between 2000 and 2013 the air pollution levels changed suddenly across India 1.The decision taken by the government of India to skip Bharat Stage (BS) V norm and directly shift to BS-VI norm has disturbed the economics of two large industries i.e. Oil and Auto manufacturing. Obviously environment will get benefited from this but financially the resources of these two sectors will suffer 2 Keeping these 2 sectors in view .By the introduction of BS VI norms, it will ensure that future engines will emit very less toxic emissions, they will be fuel efficient and thus not constitute any danger to the environment. These engines will emit less toxic gases .on the other side a hybrid vehicle can be introduced, with the help of this there will be reduction of pollution level .. A hybrid vehicle is one that uses more than one means of propulsion – that means combining a petrol or diesel engine with an electric motor. The main advantages of a hybrid are that it should consume less fuel and emit less CO2 than a comparable conventional petrol or diesel-engine vehicle.
A comparative study in terms of financial and social-economic is made between challenges to be faced by auto sector in the production of electric vehicles and BS VI compliance vehicle
It’s tough to start a new business off the ground. It’s even tougher when you’re trying to setup a new industry based on a new product that could change the ways millions of people get around. The main challenge is costs. Battery technology is expensive, and because batteries in electric cars need to be able to hold massive amounts of charge to make the cars practical for most drivers, they have to be built using expensive materials, most of which are tough to procure. Because electric cars cost a lot to build, they also cost more than comparable gasoline cars to buy. Electric cars could be less expensive if electric car makers could ramp up production volume and use economies of scale. But, for that to happen, lots of consumers need to buy electric cars — something that likely won’t happen without prices coming down. Another major problem will be off charging stations , as they need to setup of charging station which will take a lot of time and will cost a lot .this means that setting up a new industry will need a huge amount of money.
2 Automobile industry would need an investment of Rs. 1.5 lakh crore in order to meet this change. The change will increase the price of cars in India significantly. b. Oil refineries will need to invest a staggering Rs 80,000 crore in advancement petrol and diesel quality to meet cleaner fuel specifications by 2020 even the oil Refineries companies have to change the standard of fuel s they have to make it form BSIV-BSVI fuel ,which will also cost them high .
Comparative Analysis Of E2O Of Mahindra ;Mahindra ; Alto 800 Of Maruti Suzuki
E2O Mahindra ; Mahindra (Electric)
Maruti Alto 800 (Petrol)
Fuel Type Electric powered Petrol
Transmission Fully Automatic Manual
Mileage 120 km on a full charge 24.70km/l, CNG 33.44km/kg
Max Torque [email protected] [email protected]
Max power [email protected] [email protected]
An electric car is a plug-in electric automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors using energy typically stored in rechargeable batteries . Since 2008, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries, concerns about increasing oil prices , and the desire to reduce(NOx).
Charging an electric car can be done at a variety of charging station these charging stations can be installed in both communities and public areas. The two bestselling electric vehicles, the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S, has EPA ranges reaching 151 miles (243 km) and 335 miles (539 km) respectively. Keeping this vehicle in view but this be costly,and a normal person cannot pay for its recharging and other spare parts , so for this problem there is a solution that is a sodium ion battery and a battery controller can introduced
Mileage covered in single charge for different batteries
1. Toyota Prius PHEV: The battery used by this model is Li-ion, mileage covered by this model is 18 km in a single charge and its charging time is 3h at 115VAC 15A, 1.5h at 230VAC 15A.
2. Mitsubishi iMiEV: The battery used by this model is Li-ion, mileage covered by this model is 128km in a single charge and its charging time is 13h at 115VAC 15A;
7h at 230VAC 15A
Latest research going on different batteries
In the current time research is going on sodium ion battery, keeping resources in view, as they are easily available and are cheap, so all the focus is on the sodium ion battery to make it functional for the vehicle. As lithium battery is already available but its resouces are expensive , that’s why researchers are looking for an alternative . The experiments which have verified the predictions, they found that the phosphorus forms helices at intermediate stages of charging.
The researchers identified the final composition of the electrode, which provides a final capacity of charge carriers seven times that of graphite for the same weight. This gives us fresh insights into how to make high-capacity sodium-ion anodes.
1. Idle stop start: The engine automatically stops when idle and silently starts when the optimal conditions are met in manual and automatic transmissions. This helps in increasing fuel efficiency.
2. Braking energy Regeneration :Braking charges the special high capacity batteries, which in return assist the engine’s idle start stop and the torque assist functions the optimal conditions are met in manual and automatic transmissions. This helps in increasing fuel efficiency.
3. Torque Assit Function: The energy stored in the Lithium-ion battery assists during acceleration. This helps the engine in providing optimal acceleration and performance.
Advantages of hybrid vehicle
1. Both should be conventional and electric i.e it should work on the fuel and as well as electric powered
2. Regenerative braking and other energy effective system: it’s a kind of braking system that can recapture much of the car’s kinetic energy and convert it into electricity, so that it can be used to recharge the car’s batteries. This system is called regenerative braking.
Sodium ion Battery
(Li) is not available in India (Na) is vastly available.
Lithium is expensive and resources are unevenly distributed. Sodium is inexpensive and can be found in seawater so is virtually limitless
BS Emission Norms
On February 19, 2016, the Indian Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) issued a draft notification of Bharat Stage (BS) VI emission standards for all major on-road vehicle categories in India.1 The standards apply to light- and heavy duty vehicles, as well as two- and three-wheeled vehicles. As proposed, the BS VI standards will go into effect for all vehicles in these categories manufactured on or after April 1, 2020. The draft BS VI proposal specifies mass emission standards, type approval requirements, and on-board diagnostic (OBD) system and durability levels for each vehicle category and sub-classes therein. In addition, reference and commercial fuel specifications are included in the BS VI proposal. The adoption of the proposed BS VI emission standards will essentially bring Indian motor vehicle regulations into alignment with European Union regulations for light-duty passenger cars and commercial vehicles, heavy-duty trucks and buses, and two-wheeled vehicles. While not yet reaching European levels, more stringent emission standards are also set for three-wheeled vehicles. With this proposal, the Indian Government has confirmed its intent to leapfrog BS V level emission standards and move directly to the more stringent and robust BS VI level. The proposed BS VI standards are far-reaching in scope and incorporate substantial changes to existing Bharat Stage III and IV emission standards. Of particular note is the tightening of particulate matter (PM) mass emission limits and the introduction of particle number (PN) limits for light- and heavy-duty vehicles (LDV, HDV) fitted with gasoline direct injection (GDI) and compression ignition (CI), or diesel, engines. As evidenced by the adoption of nominally equivalent PM and PN standards in Europe, this step will likely lead to the near-universal application of diesel particulate filters (DPF) to control PM emissions from new diesel LDVs and HDVs. A second important component of the BS VI standards is the expansion of type approval and in-service conformity test requirements for LDVs and HDVs. For LDVs, provisions are included in the BS VI proposal for real-world driving cycle emission measurements using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). For HDVs, the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) and European Transient Cycle (ETC) used for BS III and IV type approval are replaced with the World Harmonized Steady-State Cycle (WHSC) and World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC), respectively
Table 1: Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles)
Standard Reference YEAR Region
India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide
Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2001 NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai
2003.04 NCR*, 13 Cities†
Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2005.04 NCR*, 13 Cities†
Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 2010.04 NCR*, 13 Cities†
Bharat Stage V Euro 5 (to be skipped)
Bharat Stage VI Euro 6 2018.04 Delhi NCR11
* National Capital Region (Delhi)
† Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, Lucknow, Sholapur, Jamshedpur and Agra
Exhaust gases from vehicles form a significant portion of air pollution which is harmful to human health and the environment
Emission standards for new heavy-duty diesel engines—applicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kg—are listed in Table 3.
Table 3: Emission Standards for Diesel Truck and Bus Engines, g/kWh
Year Reference Test CO HC NOx PM
1992 – ECE R49 17.3–32.6 2.7–3.7 – –
1996 – ECE R49 11.20 2.40 14.4 –
2000 Euro I ECE R49 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36*
2005† Euro II ECE R49 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
2010† Euro III ESC 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10
ETC 5.45 0.78 5.0 0.16
2010‡ Euro IV ESC 1.5 0.46 3.5 0.02
ETC 4.0 0.55 3.5 0.03
* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 ‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1
Technology required for BS VI
Lean Electronic Fuel Injection System (LEFIS) : The LEFIS is a combination of mechanical pump and electronically controlled smart fuel injectors. Electronic Fuel Injection is a lot simpler than a carburetor an EFI system is nothing more than a nozzle that sprays gasoline into the airstream whenever a ECU tells it to. Of course, the devil is always in the details and those details, in particular the processes the ECU r uses to determine how much fuel to supply can get pretty complicated. With the help of this system there is a proper burning of fuel. This results in the reduction of (NOx).
Electronic Fuel Injection System (LEFIS).
In the case of diesel Engines three devices i.e EGR , Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are fitted in series. EGR is used to In internal combustion engines, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction technique used in petrol/gasoline and diesel engines. EGR works by recirculating a portion of an engine’s exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders DPF and SCR are to be fitted extra to make vehicle BS VI compliance vehicle.
1.Exhaust gas recirculation : In internal combustion engines, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction technique used in petrol/gasoline and diesel engines. EGR works by recirculating a portion of an engine’s exhaust gas back to the engine
2.Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR): is a proven and advanced active emissions control technology system that injects a liquid-reductant agent through a special catalyst into the exhaust stream of a diesel engine. The reductant source is usually automotive-grade urea, otherwise known as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF). The DEF sets off a chemical reaction that converts nitrogen oxides into nitrogen, water and tiny amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), natural components of the air we breathe, which is then expelled through the vehicle tailpipe.
3.The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) :is a device designed to reduce emissions from diesel fueled vehicles. They are located within the vehicle’s exhaust system and remove diesel particulate matter (or soot) from the exhaust gases, before they’re emitted into the atmosphere
, Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Investment Required Automotive industry would need an investment of Rs. 1.5 lakh crore in order to
meet this change. The move will increase the price of cars in India significantly. Oil refineries will need to invest a confounding Rs 80,000 crore in improvement petrol and diesel quality to meet cleaner fuel specifications by 2020
Reduction in the Emissions
Once BSVI, emission norm is implemented a reduction of 89% in the particulate matter
emissions from two-wheelers will be observed .Also NOx emissions will be reduced by 76%. In
case of cars, 82% in PM emissions and 68% in NOx emission reduction is expected to be seen.
BS VI Vehicle
Fuel Electric Powered BS VI fuel (Petrol&Diesel)
Emission Nil Very less
Infrastructure required Charging Station 1.Refinieries to shift IV to BS VI
2.Automobile company has to shift to make changes in production
Cost Low 1.Emission
2.High cost for maintenance
Problem Area 1.Energy shortage
2.High cost for maintenance
The automobile industries in india will get a huge loss and on the next hand they need to setup a new industry to make electric vehicle vehicle which will cost them in a great context so these industries have the option to get rid of all these thing by not setting up the new industries
Keeping all these points in view the best and the better way to get rid of pollution is the introduction of the hybrid vehicle India ,its that type of vehicle that can run on both fuel and battery . The automobile companies have have the best option to adopt this as this can save them from the loss .
From the analysis it can be concluded that for skipping BS-V and shifting directly to BS-VI, both of the emission reducing technologies Lean Electronic Fuel Injection System (LEFIS) for petrol engine and EGR ,SCR and DPF need to be fitted in the four-wheelers instantaneously which is a time consuming and money consuming process but have environmental benefits associated with it. Shifting directly to BS-VI within the specified time limit .and the main point that in the introduction of the Hybrid Vehicle in India
1. References: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2018; 140 (25): 7994 DOI: 10.1021/jacs.8b04183
2. : http://egazette.nic.in/WriteReadData/2016/168300.pdf