Technology is the means of accomplishing a taskspecifically using technical processes, methods, or knowledge. “A tool is anobject which provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task.”Most commonly powered by people but can be powered by animals, water, orengines. A machine is a device that is replaced for the element ofhumans/animals; automation is a type of machines that removes the formerelement of human control or operator with an automatic procedure. The next stepin the technological evolution is the Artificial intelligence (AI) which is theprocess of mirroring the human intelligence in a machine. The evolution oftechnology also evolved everything such as tools, machines, knowledge,communication and interaction, society and the list keeps on going.
The tool/machine that we’ll be discussing is the lathe;a lathe is an ancient tool, it is a tool that rotates theworkpiece about an axis of rotation to accomplish many operations for examplecutting, sanding, drilling, facing, turning, thus creating an object withsymmetry about that axis. The origin of turning dates back around 1300 BC when AncientEgyptians first developed a two-person lathe. It was known to be used in Assyria, India and ancientGreece. One individual would turnthe wood/metal work piece with a rope while the other uses a sharp tool to cutshapes in the wood/metal.
“Ancient Rome adopted and improved the Egyptiandesign with the addition of a turning bow.” In the Middle Ages, hand-operatedturning was replaced by a pedal, which allows a single individual to rotate thepiece while working with both hands. The pedal was usually connected to a pole/shaft,often a straight-grained sapling. The lathe had a great impact to the industrial revolution. It isknown as the mother of machinetool, as it was the first machine tool that lead to the invention ofother machine tool. During the industrial revolution automated power generated by waterwheels and steam engines was transferred over to the lathe via line shafting,allowing faster and easier work. Metalworking lathes evolved into heaviermachines with thicker, larger, more rigid parts.
Todays lathe is made up of 8common parts they are the bed, carriage, headstock, back gear, cone pulley fora belt drive from an external power source, faceplate mounted on spindle,tailstock, and leadscrew. Today’s technology have revolutionized the lathemachine/tool to have multiple applications, such as woodworking, duplicating,patternmaker’s, metalworking, glass working, metal spinning, ornamentalturning, reducing, rotary, watchmaker’s, and many more.