The ages of life can be described in depth using an Individual portrayal to describe humans development. This development influences human development differently because of the differences genetic, structure and stage of development humans go through. Environmental factors also contribute towards human development depending on culture, religion, resilience, nature, nurture and many more various factors which impact their development from a young age to their adulthood years. Freud, Erikson, and Piaget are theorists who have developed ideas with experiments they have demonstrated effects of influences on human development. From a healthcare point of view, this also means ensuring confidentiality, respect, trust and ethically appropriate practice to ensure the safety of clients.
Firstly physical domain of human development is about changes in the anatomical structural
features and physiological features of the human body. Human body is all about change, by the age
of 20 they would have a fully developed body. (Shaw S, Haxell A and Weblemoe T 2012). This also
includes the five senses our body is capable of such as sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. An
example of physical development is the adolescence stage aged 13-18 years when I was going
through puberty. Individuals from both genders females and males undergo puberty during
adolescence ages 13-18 (Benson, 2011). I started my period when I was 13 years old, Sigmund
Freud explains this as the “Genital Stage”. This is the final stage when psychosexual development
begins at the start of puberty and sexual urges are once again awakened (Heffner, n.d). This also
links to the reaction girls feel when their period usually starts. Even though I gotten my period at the
average age I still felt surprised because I was living with my father I had no idea how to explain it to
him. Berk, 2011 states that reactions to pubertal changes depend on previous knowledge from family
members and provided support and because I was only living with my father it was extremely hard to
understand this new concept of change in my life. Another example of physical development is the
school-age stage aged 7- 12 years of age when I was actively playing netball for the school at aged
12. Physical development in school-age children is effective but it occurs at a slow rate than in early
childhood. This development occurs when children are slowly becoming taller, more substantial and much coordinated. This is when gross motor skills such as jumping and running and exceptional motor skills such as writing and drawing are developed well and leads to more improvement as children are growing up (Shaw S, Haxell A and Weblemoe T 2012). These also link to flexibility, balance, agility and force because I was using these aspects while in this developmental age stage. This also helped me along with my body growth for my information processing which was a vital role in my improved motor
performance. Playing netball at this age helped my reaction time improved more steadily because I
wasn’t so comfortable playing sports beforehand. It also helped that physical education was a
compulsory subject when I was in primary school enabling me to gain the simple motor skills which
helped me developed my gross motor skills when playing netball (Berk, 2011). This links to social
domain because not just physically but I am also able to socially make friends while playing netball.
This makes it easier to build trust, empathy, loyalty, and friendships which can last a lifetime.
Secondly, the social domain of human development is about how a person relates to the people they
surround themselves with. Usually their immediate family, close friends, and workmates affect that person’s life. This also looks at how individuals communicate with others depending on their
environments and the response they received. (Benson, 2011). An example of social development is
the adolescence stage aged 13-18 years. Being raised up by both parents smoking I use to tell myself
that I would never smoke, this was a different story when I started high school. I was always
surrounded by my best friend who would always have a cigarette in her hand and I felt like she was
so “cool” so I developed this habit of smoking as well. This links to Sigmund Freud a psychosexual
theorist using the experiment of listening to his client’s talk he was successfully able to develop a
theory on personality. Freud states that all humans are known to be pleasure seekers even if they are
unaware of their habit. This also links to the development when a human is at the infancy stage which
is the age of 0-2. Freud theory has been broken down into smaller groups which divide how infant
seek pleasure by biting, crying, eating, screaming and thumb sucking (Berk, 2009). In my situation I
was only breastfed for a month after that I was drinking formula out of a bottle limiting my oral fixation.
Freud believed that if oral pleasure is not as required by the infant or it has received too much oral
pleasure such as sucking on a thumb for long periods of time, it can cause oral obsessions in the later
stages in life such as drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, eating more for a period of time, constant
talker and nail-biting. Freud also believed that if you are not able to look after your oral fixation, it can
lead to more anger problems depending on a situation. Instead of fighting against my cravings I
alternatively have maintained them.
Thirdly cognitive domain of human development is about the development of the mind how
we think and remember things. The cognitive domain of a human being is the mind, thinking skills,
and how they see the world. It also looks at how well they remember things, languages they can
speak and decision-making skills they hold (Benson, 2011). An example of cognitive development is
the infancy stage aged 0-2 years of age is when my mother used to tell me I would enjoy looking at
people’s faces. Sigmund Freud explains that newborns visual abilities are fine-tuned for eye contact.
They recognise faces and prefer to look at faces over any other object (Shaw S, Haxell A and
Weblemoe T 2012). This also links to memory as well because babies are able to recognise their
parents just by looking at their face. Another example I learned when I was in the early childhood
stages ages 2-5 years of age was when I started primarily at age 5. I was quite scared to start primary
school because this meant I was going to be left unsupervised without my father longer than I had
expected. The child’s reaction would be that they are going to cry once my father had let go of my
hand and left the classroom. A theorist to use would be Jean Piaget he was developing theories that
were broken down into stages using cognitive development. According to Piaget children don’t
consider other people and only think about themselves. Children are always used to having their way
so it’s a shock when they receive a no for an answer. (McLeod 2010). This relates to me because I
wanted everything my way and I did not want my father to leave. I expected him to stay in the
classroom with me so we could do things together because I was shy. Another feature of this stage is
animism when children believe that non-living objects have the 5 senses and they are one of us.
When I was this age I believed that my teddy bear was real and when someone touched her I
expected her to scream and shout and demanded to be returned to me. I believed that teddy bears
had feelings and could feel pain just like human beings.
Lastly, nature is inherited or genetic and nurture refers to all environmental influences after conception and experiences (McLeod, 2007). I was born into an Indian and Fijian background and culture is passed in the family and community when a person is born and raised (Shaw, S, Haxell, A and Weblemoe T, 2012). Despite being born in Fiji and raised in New Zealand learning values, beliefs and behaviours acceptable to me were part of my nurture aspects. I was raised by my father more so automatically I was taught his cultural ways. Everyone has a culture of origin that they can relate to. We need to understand that health practitioner has a specific professional culture that they relate to so that they are able to give clients the best care possible (Shaw, S, Haxell, A and Weblemoe T, 2012). (Also nature of my genes I was born with dark hair, normal curly hair, facial dimples, normal hearing and normally pigmented skin which are dominant genetics I have inherited from my parents (Berk, 2010). Another example of this is being raised with one sisters and only being raised by our father who struggled to keep us happy. Having a father who struggled to keep us well fed, providing a home, buy the essentials needed, taking us to school and looking after us has changed my understanding of reality. This shows environments can have an impact on our genetics will keep me open-minded as I go on this path to becoming a nurse in the future.
To conclude, learning about my own human development has made me learn more about myself by using theories and developing my own understanding in depth by using domains to describe how this influences human development. Also building and able to adapt easily to different surroundings.