The basic priorities for the researchers is understanding the factors that motivated employee and how they were motivated.
Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory is also known as two factor-theory due to dual nature of approach to find out the sources of job satisfaction and job motivation (Miller , 2007). Based on the research by Herzberg, he developed the elements that can leads to satisfaction at work which represented as motivation factors whereas hygiene factors known as the separate list of factors that contribute to the dissatisfaction which recognized as hygiene factors. Hence, Herzberg theory of motivation selected as dimensions for motivational factors which represented as independent variable of the research.The hygiene factors are also known as extrinsic factors that keep the employees to be motivated and it consisted of psychological, safety and love needs from the Maslow theory.
These factors are not directly linked to the job but it based on the surrounding of performing job. When the employees are not present, these factors operate to dissatisfy the employees but it is not necessary build strong motivation with the presence of such conditions (Gibson, 2000). These factors include : company policy, interpersonal relations, supervision, salary, job security, personal life, work condition and status ( Herzberg, Mausner, ; Snyderman, 1959).
Herzberg categorized these as hygiene factors since it is importance for the organization to maintain the level of satisfaction and it causes dissatisfaction when these factors are not existed. The hygiene factors are not necessary to have a direct link to motivation but it is important to prevent dissatisfaction and also the foundation of motivation. According to Herzberg, the motivator factors based on the job content and it is known as intrinsic factors that derived from the job itself. The factors based on the psychological needs for growth and recognition.
The presence of these factors develop strong level of motivation which leads to good job performance but it is not necessary to be highly dissatisfying if these factors absent in the organization. These factors known as satisfiers or motivators. These factors listed as achievement, advancement, recognition, work itself, personal growth and responsibility ( Herzberg, Mausner, ; Snyderman, 1959). According to Baah ; Amaoako (2011), combining the hygiene and motivating factors can be seen through the outcome of some scenarios. For instance, (1) those employees who have high hygiene motivation will contribute to a situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints. (2) those employees who have high hygiene and low motivation create a situation where the employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated because the job accepted as pay check. (3) those employees who have low hygiene and high motivation will contribute to a situation where the employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints.
It is a situation where the employees experienced enjoyable and challenging job but salaries and work condition are not as expectation. (4) those employees who have low hygiene and low motivation creates a situation where the employees feel unmotivated with lots of complaints. This theory encourages the managers to not consider one sided factors to motivate employees but need to be concern based both sided of factors in order to satisfy the employees and increases their work performance. Overall, Herzberg argues that there are certain aspects need to be consider and develop into jobs to make the employees to be satisfy and motivated. This statement can be supported based on the view of Herzberg (1987) explained that organization which removes the causes of dissatisfaction or hygiene factors would not lead to job satisfaction but only reduces job dissatisfaction. On the other hand, individuals will only be satisfied and motivated if motivation factors are utilized.
Thus, it shows that staff motivation can be increases if the organization introducing intrinsic factors in their job content. Herzberg et al, further identified motivating factors as those factors that contributes to the willingness of workers to work harder which leads to work performance. So, this can be concluded that employees who are satisfied with their work will makes them to be motivated and perform well in their work.