The current Yemeni crisis began in the period of the Arab Spring revolutions in 2011, which led to the Yemeni revolution that toppled the rule of the former President of the Republic of Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh, which lasted for more than 33 years through the Gulf initiative in which Saleh agreed to step down from power, Elections were held in which former vice president and current president of Yemen Abderbo Mansour Hadi won.Yemen is divided historically between Shia who live mostly in the north of Yemen, the majority of Sunnis living in the south, and because of the many problems that occurred in Yemen in the post-2011 period began the civil war in 2014 due to political instability or exclusion and the attacks of al-Qaeda and the separatist movement in the South, And Abdul-Malik al-Houthi, leader of the Houthis after the period of the Arab Spring, “the Yemeni revolution” accused That government is corrupt and ignoring the needs of citizens, and on February 6, the Houthis officially seized power, The Saudi government, which shares the border with Yemen, was particularly concerned about the Huthis because they were directly supported by Iran, the regional rival of Saudi Arabia. Yemeni President AbedRabbo Mansour Hadi fled to Aden, where he and his loyal forces fled, Saudi forces led a military offensive against the Huthis and in support of President Hadi.The air campaign of the Saudi-led coalition forces succeeded in enabling Yemeni regular forces to take control of Aden in July 2015, but fighting in northern Yemen, including Sanaa, proved more difficult for the coalition. Thousands of civilians and severely damaged infrastructure in Yemen, but failed to ease the grip of the Houthis on the capital. Jihadist militants”al-Qaeda” and organized an Islamic state (ISIS) have used the chaos to seizing land in the south and carrying out attacks, particularly in Aden.
In late 2017, former President Saleh announced that he was ready to hold talks with the Saudi-led coalition on ending the war. Houthi’s group denounced it as a betrayal, and soon followed by violent confrontations between Saleh and Houthis forces. Where the Houthis fought against pro-Saleh forces to control the main positions in the capital. On 4 December Saleh was killed by the Houthis near his home in Sana’a.The separatists seeking independence for southern Yemen, which was a separate state before unification with the north in 1990, formed an alliance with forces loyal to Mr Hadi’s government in 2015 to stop the Houthis from capturing Aden. In 2018, the separatists attempted to seize government installations and military bases in Aden By force.The situation has become more complicated because of divisions within the Saudi-led coalition. Saudi Arabia reportedly supports Riyadh-based Mr.
Hadi, while the United Arab Emirates agrees with the separatists. Among the humanitarian crises where the use of residential areas by the Huthis and the launching of attacks, including the presence of mines that killed and wounded many, and indiscriminate shelling of residential areas, whether in Yemen or southern Saudi Arabia, and the use of the internationally banned cluster bombs. According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the number of civilian deaths since the start of the coalition campaign is 4,125 civilians and 7207 wounded. Human Rights Watch documented 61 illegal air strikes by the coalition that killed at least 900 civilians.
The biggest humanitarian problem in Yemen is the bombing of medical facilities, According to the Office of the Commissioner of the United Nations, 600 medical facilities were closed in 2016 due to the ongoing conflict and that more than 80 percent of the population of Yemen need medical access to them and because of the imposition of the naval and air embargo, which prevented the arrival of several necessary means such as fuel and Agust 2016. The alliance suspended commercial air flights, causing a crisis for patients in need of treatment abroad. Air strikes killed 200 children, destroyed several schools and injured many Huthis.
Armed groups in Yemen use children as soldiers, estimated at 72% of the UN report in 2015. Of the 762 child soldiers of the Houthis as well as the problem of forced recruitment of children