The fourth characteristic is teamwork skills that are taught during the process and can be strengthened along with other communication skills if the roles are distributed as mentioned previously. Finally, the fifth characteristic is group processing, where the group discusses how well they are reaching their set goals constantly and have a sustainable working environment. (Smith et. al, 2005).
Communication therefore occurs in all ways; students-to-students, whereby they engage together as they are doing the role assigned to them, teacher-to-students when she gives feedback, interacts, teaches, refocuses, questions, clarifies, supports, expands, celebrates and empathizes and students-to-teacher as they report their findings, seek feedback, and evaluate themselves. In some situations silent students who don’t contribute to the benefit of the group or to themselves don’t choose to acquire the language. The way to deal with the frustration of these students is to discuss to them the importance of language learning and the importance of utilizing it outside the classroom as well. Moreover, if there is a resistant group, one-way to overcome it is discussing the advantages of learning in groups. CL tends to highlight the interactive and sociable nature of language,as students use the language as a mean of communication. When it comes to learning a second language through the cooperative learning approach students learn about the rules through participating in cooperative structured interaction activities. To be more specific, the second language is learned the similar way as the native one.(Bahous, PCK notes, 2018).
As for the role of culture, Sonia Nieto (1996) has signaled that CL is an approach compatible with diverse cultural groups as it helps students value one another as they consider other points of views, while it might create some clashes (as cited by Smith, et. al, 2005).Finally, as for evaluation during cooperative language learning, the students are evaluated by either the instructor be it through formative or summative assessments, or by individual assessments, whereby to reflect on the learning process a metcognitive perspective is taken to enhance student learning, or finally by peer assessment whereby group members assess the works of their peer, noting that this evaluation happens before, during and ater exercises. (Merrits, 2018) There is no doubt that cooperative learning is a tool for the students in the class to act as a team. Although many research has been conducted on cooperative learning, EFL and ESL related research on cooperative learning is still a developing area of research. The full power of cooperative language learning needs to be explored to find out the worthwhile effects on it on teaching and learning.