Thedevelopment of an era is marked by the changes that occur over time that isglobalization. This increasingly changing globalization is caused by the humanmind. These changes are very influential on the social and cultural developmentof society. Of course, they also cannot be separated from the Muslim communitythat is trapped by the flow of globalization. In getting prosperity, it is verydifficult to resist the changes that occur in the current world of development.
The world of development today causes many changes from every aspect of life.This change is inevitable because science and technology are increasinglysophisticated over time. This makes the general public aware of the importanceof science mastery of science and technology to filter the impact ofglobalization that continues to bring about changes in human life.
Globalization is like two sides of a coin. On the first side, changes in theimpact of globalization have a negative impact on people’s lives. For example,Muslim women’s clothing style is now more follow the ongoing trend in theworld, so the identity of Muslim women who according to religious rulesincreasingly degenerate. Then, on the second side, the era of globalizationraises a positive side for people’s lives. For example, Muslim societies canlearn to control science and technology in their lives and can communicate withother Muslims in different worlds. However,this returns to our identity as Muslims, whether we follow the era ofglobalization by not forgetting its identity as a Muslim or even allowingidentity to follow the flow of globalization.
Surely we can confront the changeof globalization through various strategies in facing the impact ofglobalization. With these strategies are intended to minimize the impact ofMuslim social change. This strategy covers several areas such as education,politics, economics, etc.
1. EconomicStrategiesThedevelopment of globalization in bringing about change throughout the world hasled to various impacts on various aspects of human life. One of them is theeconomy, which is an important aspect in people’s life that becomes the mainessential in a country. Economic aspect must be the biggest aspect influencedby the emergence of globalization, not to mention other areas such as socialculture and religion.
This globalization of the economy causes interdependencein economic and trade activities. This activity continues as the impact isincreasingly pervasive in society in general, so now there are no morerestrictions or obstacles in conducting economic activities. The existence ofthe system of economic globalization gives two different impacts that is apositive and negative. The positive impact on the globalization of the economyis that consumers have a choice in buying more goods and can enjoy better andquality goods at a cheaper price, indirectly thus causing the prosperity ofsociety within a country. Then, the negative impact is if in the long run thiskind of growth will continue to hamper economic growth and also can cause highunemployment rate in a country. This condition in fact makes social societyinto a gamble in the life of the economy. Economiesin the world generally follow the conventional economic system, but now theIslamic economy is becoming increasingly widespread all over the world.
One ofthe adherents of the Islamic economic system or better known as ” economy shari’ah ” is the British state.The country adopted the Islamic economic system so that it developed rapidlyand attracted the attention of other countries about the Islamic economy. Theeconomic crisis that has happened to the world a few years ago brought Islamicfinance into a world financial savior. Kamal Naser and Luiz Moutinho(1997) claims that Islamic banks are more favored by the developed countries.The difference that makes Islamic banks superior to God lies in the performanceof the money management system and evident in the past few years that manynon-Muslim countries have begun to adopt the Islamic economic system, emergingrivalries from banks that initially embrace conventional systems today intoIslamic Shari’ah system. It makes abig change of course, especially in the midst of the influence of globalizationthat provides various impacts in the aspects of the world economy today.
Similarly,Blad, Cory and Banu Koçer (2012) claims that theexistence of Islamist parties dominates politics in Turkey to be a talk amongscientists and steals the attention of several researchers residing in Americaas well as Europe. The circulation of news about the welfare of politics underthe auspices of Islam gives a terrible effect on the world. The result thatbrings the efficacy to the success of Islamic politics in Turkey is the effortto defend state policy in this century of neo liberalism. Adjustment of neo liberalismas a unity of political economy can reduce the fulfillment of the country’seconomy and the capacity of social services.
The resulting impact of thereduction made by the Turkish state is a saving of legitimacy in balance withthe national population which considers that the state is unable to meet thepreviously stated economic protection requirements in exchange for legitimatestate support. In an effort to protect official authority, neo liberalismstates are forcibly forced to move beyond the stage of economic protection andadopt as much cultural approach as possible. Their use with the economicprotection strategy of the period from 1945 to 1980 was with the use of theIslamic system as a cultural policy strategy followed by its downfall in 1980in Turkey. M.Umer Chapra (1993) claims that there are four important elements of strategy: 1.1 Equitable Filtering of ExcessClaimsM.Umer Chapra (1993) claims that, the most important problem of economicglobalization symptoms is the loss of limitations.
People are increasinglycompeting in meeting their individual needs. The absence of filtering makes thecommunity happy in wasting resources for momentary satisfaction while the pricesystematically is unable to turn on the filtering function so the mechanismgoes unevenly. Therefore, the religion of Islam provides a solution in thisproblem that is by doing attitude screening in ensuring the mechanisms can runevenly.
This is done to arouse the public about the overly restrictiveintentions of using people’s perspectives by altering people’s mindset aboutresources not as a mere fulfillment of satisfaction but as a basic need for thewelfare of society. This is done to minimize the impact of wasted resources fordesires made in the negative or even to spend resources for pleasure only. Sowe must, we live in a simple state with a decent lifestyle. Many of thepositive gal that we can get in applying this strategy is the one that is nolonger wasteful or the use of resources is excessive or futile.1.2 MotivationM.
Umer Chapra (1993) claims that we as human beings must have a good ofmotivation both from the outside and from the inside. Individual motivation isvery different, especially when it comes to personal interests. Most peopleonly think about what they want without paying attention to the impact of thefulfillment of such wishes. Community does not know how to motivate themselvesabout social interests through screening their own attitudes toward personalinterests did not produce satisfactory results. Referring to what Adam Smithsaid that by giving the public the explanation that the personal interests thatexist within the human also help in the social interest, the community mustalso turning these words into social interests may also affect the personalinterest of the human person.
Therefore, both personal interests and socialinterests can work together well in this economic aspect. Islam is not areligion of restraint, but Islam is helping us in limiting in good terms.Prevention of Islam in this stage is to improve together without preventing orinhibiting human beings in fulfilling their personal interests. 2.
3Socio-economic Restructuring M.Umer Chapra (1993) claims that, this strategy we can see in everyday life howthe state of the social environment can affect the interests of the humanperson. Societies derived from moral and high will desire to impact the problemin the social economy. People are less aware of the pa they have done cause thesocial economic mechanism is not conducive and make social strata peaked. The environmentmakes society neglectful of social views, where the rich are competing tofollow the trend unknowingly with the flow of globalization that turns theminto a greedy and self-serving humanity. While on the other hand, low-classsociety is busy working to meet the needs principal. It is the unconsciousnessthat leads to the reconstruction of the social economy so that the interests ofvarious groups of society can be generalized and without exaggeration.
It isintended that every human being can prosper the social economic environmentwithout following the trend of every time. Islam embraces a high justice systemand provides welfare impacts in stabilizing the economy. Therefore, it isappropriate that we realize and begin to sort out the resources we need notwhat we want. M.Umer Chapra (1993) claims that the restructuring must address itself to:a. Changesin terms of development aspects that can play an active and constructive role.b. Minimizeproduction tools as best as possible in order to improve in the aspect ofresource allocation and distribution.
c. Eliminateall unnecessary consumption in order for savings in fulfillment of needs andinvestment.d.
Rebuildingthe financial system through mutual play a role in its performance andreconstruct economy social. 2.4Role of the State M.Umer Chapra (1993) claims that, in this strategy the role of the stateapparatus is also needed. Governments granted authority as intermediaries ofthe community must act quickly in stabilizing economic conditions. The role ofthe government must be positive in helping the social economic conditions ofsociety. This role reinforces the fundamentals of Islamic values ??thatcomplement the creation of a good social, economic, socioeconomic environment,the development of structured development, the control of the waste of resources,and not limited to the community but gives a clear explanation so that peopleare able to understand the condition of the economy more good. Islam upholdssocial among fellow to share and the role of Islamic economy must beappropriate goals oriented to the social economic community.
2. PoliticalStrategiesTheproblem of globalization is very influential on the political aspects in acountry. Globalization fosters a democratic, open, clean, and authoritativegovernment.
The effect of globalization has, of course, also had a negative andpositive effect on people’s lives, as it connects between government andsociety, which aims at a policy-making process and a binding decision on thecommon good that resides within a particular region. In addition, theglobalization of politics or global governance is the process of entry of a newpattern or values that are accepted as a whole because it benefits politics,such as inter-state political cooperation by forming a multilateralinternational organization, etc.3.1 Revitalizing the Islamic view Untilnow Islam is better known in terms of ritual than with Islamic involvement inall aspects of life, such as unemployment, air pollution, global warming, etc.Mandavelle(2007) claims that a country with a majority of Islam is concernedwith their political world.
There are several conditions concerning Islamicpolitics, among them is the understanding of textual theology or the electionof new members of the power of religion and secular experience of human lifeoften makes the religion far from the world of politics. 3.2 Building Muslim political unityThedecline of support for Islamic parties is due to a split by the Muslimsthemselves. Islamic parties are formed in groups making the Muslim communityhave neither the same idea nor the mutual support of one another.
However, it makesIslamic politic chaotic, especially with the era of globalization that affectsall aspects of life is no exception to the political aspect. Therefore shouldbe in facing the era of globalization is very risky if fellow Muslims do notcooperate with each other. 3.3 Solve actual problemsIslammust be able to solve problems that are outside the religious issue.
The issueof the inability of Islamic parties in solving real problems that occur insociety, such as global warming, poverty, unemployment, and others. It causesthe public to simply assume that Islam only solves the problem of religionalone. Although other common parties have similar conditions but they are ableto present themselves more attractively so that the real problems facing thecommunity are responded to quickly and better. That is what caused the Islamicpolitical party is increasingly declining until now. 3. EducationStrategiesEducationis a very important factor in human life. Education can be interpreted as aplace where people can share knowledge with others and assisted by the presenceof educators who will provide new knowledge not previously obtained from thefamily and the environment. Education has a high value in aspects of lifebecause science is needed as the next generation of the nation today.
Especially when the current globalization that gives impact to science, whichin the present condition human beings are required to know the science andtechnology so as not to be left behind with the development of the times.Education is generally divided into three types: formal, non-formal andinformal education. The difference between the three types of education lies inthe conditions under which learning and learning takes place. Formal educationis a learning activity that is obtained at an educational institutionofficially, such as schools and universities. In contrast, non-formal educationis a teaching-learning activity that is acquired without going through anofficial institution, such as training institutions and study groups. Then thelast is informal education is teaching and learning activities conductedindependently in the family and environment, such as early childhood educationand kindergarten.
Educationin Islam also teaches about the importance of science both for the individualand for the country. Many Muslims today are studying in Europe and abroad for arange of knowledge. Islam is not limiting but enriches us to the good of allthings we do not yet understand.
The Islamic inquiry begins with the mother whois the first “madrasah” in herchild’s life. Therefore, education based on the environment and family that canguide the child can encourage the child to study harder to achieve dreams inthe future. This certainly does not escape with the impact of globalization oneducation now. Mawardi Pewangi (2016) claims that the steps in preparing thestrategies that need to be taken in the face of the challenges of globalizationmentioned above have made us an educated Muslim to face globalization throughstrategies that will improve the structure of Islamic education beginning withthe internal part, there are: 4.
1Resolving the problem of dichotomy (theology)Inthis step of strategy, the question of the dichotomy or theology of theology ofreligion and science that presents the dualism education is Islamic educationand general education. A dichotomy is a theological concept that makes peopleclaim something from two aspects, such as body and spirit, religion and common,etc. Dichotomy and dualism is an issue that has been unresolved to date. Astime went by, various terms emerged to justify the dichotomous view. Forexample, religious schools and public schools, general faculties and religiousfaculties, etc.
This dichotomy suggests that general education is an ongoingeducation without any element of religious relevance, whereas religiouseducation is an education that takes place in the absence of an element ofinterconnectedness knowledge and technology. So now we can say that Islamiceducation leads to the phase of preparation between two aspects of generalscience and religion. 4.
2 Revitalization of objectivesand functions of Islamic educational institutionsIslamiceducational institutions need to reconstitute their goals and functions. AzyumardiAzra (1999) claims that there are several models of Islamic education inIndonesia: a. Islamic education is for religious educationalone to prepare and present “ulama”in order to be able to overcome the actual or contemporary problematicaccording to the rapid development of today. b. Islamic education that composes the curriculumwith the materials of general education and religion as a goal to prepareintellectual Muslims who are able to think comprehensively, such as “madrasah”. c. Islamic education adopts a separate model ofmodern education and fills it with Islamic concepts, such as Islamic schools. d.
Islamic education rejects the Western educationsystem. This makes the education of Islam should make the original model ofeducation taken from the basic concept of Islam and also able to adapt it tothe socio-cultural environment of Indonesia. e. Religiouseducation is not implemented in school activities but is carried out outside ofschool activities. This means that religious education is carried out in thehome or neighborhood of the surrounding community which can provide religiousinfluence. 4.
3Curriculum reform (materials)Islamiceducation materials are dominated by normative, ritual and eschatologicalissues. Malik Fajar(1998) claims that Islamic education is spreading in thespirit of religious orthodoxy with no gaps for critical review. Islamic inquiryis not functional in everyday life, except in ritual verbal and formalactivities. Based on the development of science, various problems began toemerge clearly cannot be addressed only with the sciences that had been ineducational institutions such as fiqh, tasawuf, aqidah akhlak, etc. Researchersand Muslim educators need to develop Islamic scholarship in the era ofglobalization. Thus, the development of science will be able to overcome theactual problems surrounding global warming, air pollution, unemployment,corruption, social environment, human rights, etc.