The Shannon–Weaver model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technology. Their initial model consisted of four primary parts: sender, message, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person speaks into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone through which one can hear the person on the other end of the line. Shannon and Weaver also recognized that there may often be static or background sounds that interfere with the process of the other partner in a telephone conversation; they referred to this as noise. Certain types of background sounds can also indicate the absence of a signal.1In a simple model, often referred to as the transmission model or standard view of communication, information or content (e.g.
a message in natural language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an emissor/ sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder. According to this common communication-related conception, communication is viewed as a means of sending and receiving information. The strengths of this model are its simplicity, generality, and quantifiability. The mathematicians Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured this model on the basis of the following elements:An information source, which produces a message.A transmitter, which encodes the message into signalsA channel, for which signals are adapted for transmissionA receiver, which reconstructs the encoded message from a sequence of received signals and decodes it.An information destination, where the message arrives.Shannon and Weaver argued that this concept entails three levels of problems for communication:The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted?The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning ‘conveyed’?The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect behavior?Daniel Chandler criticizes the transmission model in the following terms:3It assumes that communicators are isolated individuals.It makes no allowance for differing purposes.It makes no allowance for differing interpretations.It makes no allowance for unequal power relationships.