Types of anemia 8
Iron deficiency anemia- Iron deficiency anemia is a condition in which the body has too little iron in the blood stream (For Indians Recommended Dietary Allowances for Iron for Normal adult male is 17mg/dl and for normal adult female is 21mg/dl which changes during pregnancy and lactation) 9. It is microcytic anemia in which size of RBC reduces from normal size. This form of anemia is more common in adolescents and in women before menopause. Blood loss from heavy periods, internal bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, or donating too much blood can all contribute to this disease. Other causes can be from poor dietary habits or from chronic intestinal diseases. Treatment is usually done by orally supplementing iron and dietary modifications 10.
Folic acid deficiency anemia- This form of anemia is characterised by a lack of folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, in the blood stream. It is macrocytic anemia in which RBC enlarges. This is usually caused by an inadequate intake of folic acid, usually found in vegetables or by the overcooking of the vegetables. Alcoholism can also be a contributing factor in this form of anemia. During pregnancy when the folic acid is used more or in infancy, this disease can also manifest itself. It can also be caused as a side effect of other blood disorders. This condition can be avoided by including foods with folic acid in the diet. Such foods include beef liver, asparagus, and red beans.
Pernicious anemia- Pernicious anemia usually affects people between the ages of 50 and 60 and is a result of a lack of vitamin B12. The disease can be hereditary but some forms of the condition can be autoimmune diseases. People who have any autoimmune diseasesare more likely to contract pernicious anemia. It is also macrocytic anemia 10.
Aplastic anemia- Aplastic anemia is caused by an absence or reduction of red blood cells. This can happen through injury where the blood forming tissue in the bone marrow is destroyed. Because of this, the sufferer is unable to fight infection and is likely to be a heavy bleeder. There is no definite known cause for aplastic anemia but it is thought to be caused by exposure to certain toxins and also to the hepatitis virus.
Sickle cell anemia- This form of anemia is of a hereditary nature and is a result of an abnormal type of red blood cells. Sickle cell anemia is a life threatening disease and there is no prevention. Complications include leg ulcers, shock, cerebral haemorrhage, and orthopaedic disorders.
Grading of anemia
WHO Grading of Anemia: according to level of haemoglobin in blood 11:
Grade 1 (Mild Anemia): < 10 g/dl
Grade 2 (Moderate Anemia): 7-10 g/dl
Grade 3 (Severe Anemia): < 7 g/dl
Anemia is mainly diagnosed by haemoglobin level in blood. Haemoglobin concentration measurement is among the most commonly performed blood test, usually as part of a Complete Blood Count.
Results are reported in g/L, g/dL or mol/L. Normal levels are:
Women: 12.1 to 15.1 g/dL (121 to 151 g/L, or 7.51 to 9.37 mmol/L)
Pregnant women: 11 to 12 g/dL (110 to 120 g/L, or 6.83 to 7.45 mmol/L)