UnitedStates Of America (USA) or United States(US) is a federal public and isworld’s 3rd or 4th largest country by total area.
UnitedStates founded United Nations and is one of the most developed country withmost concentrated wealth in one country which is about 33% of total wealth inworld. US has established foreign relation with lot of countries and Pakistanwas not an exception. US developed relations with Pakistan on 20 October 1947which was just 2 months and 6 days after independence of Pakistan.
Thus US wasone of the first nations to develop relations with Pakistan. Since thenPakistan has allied with Pakistan on several occasions, most of them werebeneficial to US. For example, Pakistan allied with US against Soviet Union andPakistan was a key member which caused the later dismemberment of Soviet Union. · StartingRelations Between Pakistan And US(1947-1958)After independence of Pakistan from British Empire, Pakistanaimed to be non-aligned member.
East Pakistan had seasoned-communist pressure with widespread support while West Pakistanhad seasoned-Soviet PakistanSocialist party. But, West Pakistan’spolitical landscape was dominated withthe aid of capitalist and pro-American PakistanMuslim League. Prime Minister AliKhan wanted to ally with both Soviet Unionand theUS in wish that Pakistan maywant to take benefits from both superpowers. however Soviet Union become assisting India at thatpoint which raised badcomments from Pakistan. The population believed thatSoviet Union werenon-believers .
it was supporting India whilstdifferent groups like military believed thatSoviet Union could byno means aid Pakistan as alot it changedinto assisting India.As Soviet Union turnedinto supporting Pakistan competitors, it havebecome clear that Pakistan couldn’t benefit from both Soviet Unionand US. throughout this time in1950, theunited states invited prime Minister Khanfor an official goto which he commonplace and went on23 day professional visit to US. It became discovered that AmericasPresident Truman asked Pakistan to allow CIA formulatea base in Pakistan to preserve aneye fixed on Soviet Union which was grewto become down through Khan.From 1950 to 1953, many key figures of Pakistan’s army and politicalpaid visits to US of which the importantvisit was of Ayub Khan. After goto of Khan, familymembers between Pakistan and theUS grew strong and it became obtrusive even atsome stage in assassination of Liaqat Ali Khan.
Nice mind-set changedinto evolved beneathauthorities of Khawaja Nazimuddin.· CENTO andSEATOCentral Treaty Organization(CENTO) and Southeast Asia TreatyOrganization(SEATO) were adopted in 1954 and 1955 and Pakistan was vital memberof both of these organizations. For the most of Cold Era, Pakistan was alliedwith US. This alliance was ended in 1971 to 1972 after the East Pakistan becameseparate with aid of India. When these pacts were adopted, Pakistan was themost friendliest with US at that time.
· RelationsDuring Military Rule In PakistanWhen Ayub Khan came into power, the relations strengthenedbetween Pakistan and US. Ayub Khan’s view of US remained positive even beforehe came into power. Even the population at that time was pro-American and heldpositive views regarding US. In 1960, Ayub Khan allowed United States to startits first spy missions to the Soviet Union from the Peshawar Air Base. In 1961,Ayub Khan visited US as head of state and was welcomed with state dinner andticker tape parade.
As US aid was concentrated in West Pakistan, East Pakistanbecame angry and denounced the 1954 military pact with US. US aid to WestPakistan increased and in 1964, GDP growth was 9.3%. in 1965, Ayub Khanlaunched Operation Gibraltar against India which turned into declaration ofwar. Pakistan lost 500 million dollars from US in war against India.
It provedvery harmful to economy of Pakistan as economic growth was reduced to mere0.88%. However, Pakistan recovered rapidly with GDP growth of 2.32% in 1966 and9.79% in 1969. The war against India was useless as it had no clear victor norclear loser and it resulted in loss of lot of economic funds. This caused AyubKhan to transfer his powers to General Yahya Khan in 1969.Even though US had no relations with General Yahya Khan, therelations were still preserved as Pakistan was considered as integral bulwark against communism.
· RelationsDuring Rule Of Zulfiqar Ali BhuttoZulfiqar Ali Bhutto became president after 1970s election. Hewas democratic socialist who later became prime minister in 1974. The period ofhis rule is seen as quiet cold war as he administered socialist ideas. Hisideas were like communist ideas but Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto never actuallysupported communism.
Instead he concentrated on Movement of Non-AlignedCountries and he build friendly ties with Soviet block and Soviet Union.Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto also tried to maintain relations with US but US refused tocooperate. He strongly supported left-wing politics which was strongly opposedby US from the beginning. The president of US at that time , President Nixon,was close friend of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and hence had strong relations with himbut when Jimmy Carter became president of US, the relations between Pakistanand US became weak. This was because Jimmy Carter was an anti-socialist. Therelation was already upset with left wing theories of Bhutto. US started fearingthe loss of Pakistan which was an ally in Cold War. On the other hand, Bhuttowas sympathetic towards Soviet Union and allowed Soviet Union to accessPakistan’s warm water ports.
This was extremely beneficial to Soviet Union aswarm water ports was lacked by both Soviet Union and US. The relations betweenCater and Bhutto grew worse as Carter opposed the policy and ambitions ofBhutto and pressurized Bhutto. To return this favor, Bhutto became aggressiveand serious over the nuclear issues.
This was weak point of US and it put US ondefensive positions at UN as Carter had no counter against Bhutto.Bhutto focused on nuclear weapon research which was stronglyopposed by US. US blackmailed Bhutto on several occasions but Bhutto did notfalter and continued on weapon developing. Carter had placed an embargo onPakistan but Bhutto succeeded to bought sensitive equipment, common metalmaterials and electronic components which were marked as common items. Throughthis, Bhutto was able to hide his true intentions and continued on nuclearweapon project.
This was failure for Carter as his embargo was useless. USopposed the nuclear bomb project as it predicted that it will result indestructive war against India.Hence was hanged in 1979 after he was declared corrupted oneby pro-United States Muslims nations and United States. · RelationsDuring Rule Of Zia ul HaqDue to event of Grand Mosque Seizure, a group of PakistaniStudents burned the American embassy in Islamabad to ground resulting in deathof two Americans in 1979.The relations between Pakistan and US improved a lot afterthe death of Bhutto.
The Soviet Army crossed borders on December 24, 1979 intoAfghanistan. To counter the invasion of Soviet Union of Afghanistan, amulti-billion Operation Cyclone was started . During the military rule GeneralZia-ul-Haq , the relations and ties grew to maximum point as US gave billiondollars worth of aid to Pakistan to fight against Soviet Union. It was firsttime that Pakistan and US had strong common interest which was to fight SovietUnion after its invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. It also resulted in 3.2billion dollar military and economic assistance program between Pakistan and USto help Pakistan deal with increased security threat in region and fulfill itseconomic development needs. It resulted in largest covert operation in historyin which Pakistan fought Soviet fighters in Afghanistan.
In 1980s, US congress froze the $658 million deal of Pakistanrequesting F-16 fighters and kept both the money and the planes which led angeramong Pakistanis who claimed it as theft. The response of Carter was 325million dollars aid in three years but it was rejected by Zia. Carter’s next try was to give less than 50million dollars a year to go to Mujahideen. But like the previous and all othertries, it was rebuffed by Zia.
The reason behind Zia’s rejections were that heknew Cater was soon going to be replaced by Reagan and he may get a morebeneficial deal from Reagan. He was right and Ronald Reagan became presidentafter defeating Carter in 1980. Reagan introduced many new policies and withhelp from other key members, he increased the funding of Operation Cyclone.This resulted in increased funding to Pakistan which finally reached onebillion dollars. This was because US were facing Soviet Union which was theonly rival superpower of US and it was aiming to create Communist block.
The USaided Zia in fighting against Soviets in Pakistan. Reagan supported Pakistan’smilitary regime and during this period, Pakistan was regularly visited byAmerican officials. This was period of strong and close ties between Pakistanand US. · RelationsAfter Death Of ZiaRelations between Pakistan and US became worse when Zia andUS Ambassador were killed in a crash. The next prime ministers were BenazirBhutto and Nawaz Sharif. During this period, United States became stronglyopposed to nuclear development of Pakistan and hence passed the Pressleramendment. Instead of Pakistan, US began interacting with India and creatingclose ties with India.
Pakistan saw Indian nuclear program as threat and henceNawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto asked US to stop it. It was because Pakistanfelt that Unite States was not doing enough to handle it which was anexistential threat to state of Pakistan. Pakistan became insecure duringincreased tensions caused by Afghanistan’s infighting and threat of India.Pakistan’s support for the Taliban was opposed by US and Pakistani governmentdistanced itself from US. These reasons amounted to strained relations betweenPakistan and US.· Problems InRelationsUS threatened Pakistan by saying that if Pakistan did notstop supporting terrorist in India, the US will put Pakistan’s name interrorist’s list. After 1998 US embassy bombings in Africa, US fired missilesat al-Qaeda camp which resulted in death of five ISI agents of Pakistan whowere present at the camp.
Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif visited US to askthem to stop giving funds to Afghan mujahideen. These request were ignored byUS as US refused to cooperate with Pakistan. Instead, the US told Pakistan tostop nuclear development.
Nawaz Sharif responded with visit to US in 1990 tosolve that nuclear problem as US had implemented a strict economic cargo onPakistan. It resulted in several talks. These talks included telling Pakistanto stop nuclear projects. Nawaz Sharif replied to it by saying that he therewere no atomic bombs in Pakistan and Pakistan had no qualms in stopping nuclearprojects provided that India also stops its nuclear projects.After India conducted nuclear tests in Pakistan, Nawaz Sharifalso ordered to conduct nuclear tests which was opposed strongly by US.Relations became more worse after Pakistan involved with Kargil war with Indiaas India’s relations with US were very good.
These relations were also strained back in Indo-Pakistani Warof 1965 because during that war , US went back on its pledge of providingmilitary support. This caused negative feeling about US among Pakistanis andPakistan no longer considered US as a reliable ally.Main cause of these strains in relations and cause of embargowas that US feared that Pakistan was developing atomic bombs. · RelationsSince Rule Of Pervez MusharrafSeptember 11 attacks in 2001 in US caused US President Bushto pressurize Pakistan into joining US war on terror. Due to this, Pakistanplayed an important role in war on terror. Before this war, Pakistan supportedTaliban but after this war, Pakistan helped US by providing it with number ofmilitary airports and also capturing over 500 Al-Qaeda members and handing themto US. This war improved therelations between Pakistan and US as US gave a lot of aid in return of Pakistancapturing terrorist. Not only this but the one billion dollar debt of Pakistanwas forgiven by US in 2003 for Pakistan’s great help in war on terror.
USremoved all the sanctions on Pakistan and gave ten billion dollars in US aidsince 2001.In June 2004, President Bush made Pakistan eligible forbuying advanced American military technology.· Problemscaused by war on terrorThis created many doors of good relations but many Pakistaniswere angered by Pakistan’s support of US. Another advantage of this war was USpromise to support country’s earthquake relief efforts.
Pakistan suffered a lotof casualties in form of thousand of lives both civilians and soldiers. Before9/11, there were almost no cases of suicide bombers but after it, they becamecommon. Many refugees resided in Pakistan from war areas. Musharraf was soonforced out of office.
· Aid FromUnited StatesPresident Bush made Pakistan a major non-NATO ally because ofwar on terrorism and leading recipient of US aid. US has given Pakistan 25billion dollars worth of economic and military aid from 2002 to 2013. Theseaids included six thousand TOW ant-tank missiles, eighteen new F-16 aircraft,twenty cobra attack helicopters and many other things. Half of the aid wasgiven during Obama’s rule and it was mostly economical while other half wasgiven during Bush presidence.
· FurtherProblems In RelationsIn 2008, ISI director was confronted by NSA director claimingthat he was giving information to jihadists so they can escape from Americanattacks.Furthermore, Gora Prai airstrike on Afghan-Pakistani bordercaused death of ten members of Pakistani military. It was considered as act ofaggression by Pakistan and they said it would strain their relations. PresidentBush merely said that Pakistan is strong ally.
Pakistan was blamed for misusingalmost seventy percent of US aid (3.4 billion dollars) during 2002 to 2007. On2009, Pervez Musharraf admitted that aid received from US was not entirely usedfor its true purpose which was fighting Talibans. Instead it was used toprepare for war against India. US governments replied by saying that they willtake those allegations seriously but Musharraf replied by saying that Pakistanwill use those funds to fight what endangers them.Relationship between Pakistan and US was further damaged whentwenty four Pakistani soldiers were killed in aerial strike by US nearPakistan-Afghan borer.
ISI was also blamed for paying journalists to write negativearticles about United States.In 2011, Raymond Allen Davis incident occurred in whichRaymond Davis who was an alleged private security contractor killed twoPakistani locals who tried to rob him. It resulted in public protests andunrests which caused Pakistan to prosecuted him even though US asked Pakistanto free him as he enjoyed diplomatic immunity. He was freed after US paid thevictims families. Even thought it created a spark, US continued to supportPakistan.Pakistan was accused many times by CIA, India and US ofhiding Osama Bin Laden and Taliban but Pakistan denied these accusations.
Osama Bin Laden was killed in Pakistan on May 2,2011 but USspecial forces. This operation was orders was US president Barack Obama .Pakistani government was not informed about this operation. When Pakistanimilitary came to knew, US had already left. This created a lot of spark as manyUS officials stated that they did not tell Pakistan as Pakistan was supportingBin Laden and hiding him.
If US had told Pakistan about it, they would havehelped Bin Laden to escape. Information was leaked that Pakistan was informedabout Bin Laden’s whereabouts and yet did not tell US. Also it was leaked thatPakistan was tipping Bin Laden whenever US decided to attack Bin Laden. Relations finally went downhills when Trump became presidentin 2017. He accused Pakistan of providing safe heavens to terrorists. Trumpalso urged India for war which was an anti-Pak strategy. His speech raisedprotests in Pakistan against America.· ImprovingRelationsIn 2009, Hilary Clinton commended Pakistan for its fight inspeech about the war against militants.
In that October Pakistan was approved$7.5 billion of non-military aid by US over next five years through Kerry-Lugarill. In 2010, US president Obama increased funds given to Pakistan to createstability in regions which were of interest to US. He also gave 3.1 billion dollarsaid to Pakistan for purpose of defeating Al Qaeda in 2010.
In 2010, the White House hailed operation in which PakistaniForces captured second most powerful Taliban Abdul Ghani Baradar. This wasconsidered as big success for mutual efforts of Pakistan and US and it wasconsidered as a sign of increased cooperation with US.During 2014 and 2015, to improve previously strainedrelations, US decided to use drone missiles attack Mullah Fazlullah and laterkilled several of Pakistan’s most wanted militants. US captured a seniorTaliban commander Latif Mehsud whose arrest was sought by Pakistan. Relationsbegan to improve when Pakistan killed senior Al-Qaeda leader Adnan elShukrijumah who was wanted by US. US also helped Afghanistan and Pakistan towarm up and improve their relations. In 2016, US government proposed 860 million dollars in aidfor Pakistan including 265 million dollars for military equipment.