University of Mauritius Faculty of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering Course

University of Mauritius
Faculty of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
Course: Chemical Engineering (Minor Energy)
Level 2
Module name: Fluid Mechanics 2
Module code: CHE 2105Y(3)
Title: Pumps and their applications: Small to large scale applications: Case study type of pump in our household
Student Name: RAJCOOMAR KomalStudent I.D: 1612240
Lecturer: Dr. V. SeebaluckDate of Submission: 24th September 2018
Introduction
Pumps are devices used in both small scale and large scale to move fluids such as liquid, gases or slurries by increasing the mechanical energy of the fluid such as its flow rate, pressure and elevation CITATION Tam13 l 2057 (Pramanick, 2013). Before the design of pumps, shaduf was used to lift water in several civilisations and since pumps were made, they are found to have various sizes and types used in multiple applications CITATION Ben18 l 2057 (Liu, 2018). However, pumps are available in different types and sizes with a wide range of applications.
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Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: (ASC Industries, 2018)
However, there are five main components in pumps:
Housing – it is the casing of the pump made of aluminium and cast iron.

Impeller – it rotates to distribute the coolant through the pump.

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Bearing – it supports the rotation of the impeller.

Hub – it is connected to the bearing to provide power for the impeller to rotate.

Seal – it is used to protect the bearing from contaminants and coolants.

Classification of pumpsPumps are usually classified into two categories and both have their uses and specific place to apply them:
Positive displacement
Dynamic
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Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Classification of pumps CITATION Tam13 l 2057 (Pramanick, 2013)Dynamic pumps
They are also known as dynamic pumps and are the most common type of pumps. They are usually used in places where there is the transfer of less viscous fluid in high rates but having a low pressure. However, dynamic pumps involve often the transfer of water.

Positive displacement pumps
They are usually used where there is the transfer of high viscous fluids such as oil, slurry and sewage at high pressures and they are often used in many difficult conditions where dynamic pumps may fail. However, this class of pumps are more appropriate to use in industries as they have the ability to handle the variations in pressure, flow and viscosity.

(Castlepumps.com, 2018)
Types of pumps and their applications
Domestic pumps (small scale)
Centrifugal pump
This pump uses high rotational velocities to rotate the impeller to allow the movement of fluid from the inlet to the outlet of the pump. As the fluid moves, its kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy. However, centrifugal pump has two main components:
Impeller – it consists of a number of blades called vanes, arranging in a regular pattern and is attached to the rotating shaft.

Stationary casing – it reduces the velocity of the fluid and decreases its kinetic energy while the fluid is leaving the impeller (Shieh, n.d.).

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Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Schematic diagram of a centrifugal Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Centrifugal pump
pumps (Shieh, n.d.) (Desmi.com, 2018)
Mechanism:
The centrifugal pump uses the force vortex flow principle. The electric motor rotates the impeller creating a suction at the suction pipe allowing the water to flow through the eye of the impeller. The centrifugal force acting on the water makes the water to move radially outward towards the outer of the casing. The rotating impeller rotates the water at high velocity. However, the area of the casing keeps on increasing to decrease the velocity of the water which causes the pressure to increase and have a maximum pressure at the outlet (Mishra, 2017).

Advantages Disadvantages
It is simple in nature. There is no suction power.

It can be used in many places. It can develop cavitation.

It can be used as turbines. The fluid should not be too viscous.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: (Pumpsolutions.com.au, 2018)
Applications:
Submersible pump
A submersible pump is one which consists of a pump and a motor enclosing together so that it can submerged fully in water. Its is designed specifically to operate under the earth’s surface and to push water to the surface such as in a well (Coulter and Coulter, 2018). However, there are two types of submersible pump; single stage and multiple stage pumps.

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Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Schematic diagram of a submersible Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: Submersible pumps
pump (Mge.com, 2018) (Anon, 2018)
Mechanism:
Water is pulled in the pump at the intake the it goes to the impeller where the impeller rotates and converts the rotational energy into kinetic energy to pressure energy in a liquid by pushing it to the surface.

Advantages: Disadvantages:
It is very efficient that’s is less energy is needed to push the water. The seals can corrode easily at any time.

It does not make any noise. It is difficult to repair due to the seal.

It is not primed because it is already submerged in water It should be fully submerged in water so that it works.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: (Pumpsolutions.com.au, 2018)
Applications:
Pressure booster pump
400050072771000Pressure booster pump is one which increases the velocity of coming out of a main or private water systems. It is used specially where there is poor water flow in pipes usually at home. It has a flow rate between 5 and 10,000 gpm, a total head between 200 to 7500 ft and a horsepower between 1 to 5,000 hp (Mitchellewis.com, 2018).

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Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7: Schematic diagram of pressure booster Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8: Pressure booster water pump
water pump (Dean Bennett Spply, 2018) (www.alibaba.com, 2018)

Mechanism:
The pressure booster pump works with a close expansion tank consisting of a bladder. It pulls the water into the tank on the side of the bladder and compresses the air in the bladder so that the water becomes more pressurized (Doityourself.com, 2018).

Advantages: Disadvantages
It sets without ant frequency control. There is no steady pressure.

Its installation is cost effective. It is connected directly to the main water streams. Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3: (HydroPump Company, 2018)
Applications:
Industrial Pumps (large scale)
Diaphragm pump
Diaphragm pump also known as the membrane pump is a pump which used a combination of reciprocating and a valve either a flapper valve or a ball valve to transfer liquids. However, this type of valve are more convenient to transfer viscous liquids and it is available in different models in electric, engine, manual, air operated or hydraulic configurations. (Wastecorp.com, 2018)
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Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9: Schematic diagram of a diaphragm Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10: Diaphragm pump
pump (USA, 2014) (1/2&quo, n.d.)
Mechanism
This pump works with the air displacement principle and is connected to by a shaft in centre of the pump. It has two flexible diaphragms that move back and forth to allow fluids to move in and out through the pump and separated the air and the fluid (Verder Liquids, n.d.). The air in the diaphragm chamber is forced out when the diaphragm collapsed. After the diaphragm collapses, it extends to allow the fluid to flow to the diaphragm chamber through the intake line CITATION Min18 l 2057 (Mineral Processing & Metallurgy, 2018).

Advantages Disadvantages
It is cheaper. The fluid should be clean and free of gas particles
It operates for long term. It can become inaccurate in its metering capability if the valves are blocked.

They are more energy efficient. Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4: CITATION Mat181 l 2057 (Davey, 2018)Applications:
Gear pump
A gear pump is a positive displacement pump that is a constant amount of fluid is pumped at a constant for each revolution and uses the meshing of gears to allow the flow of fluid. However, there are two basic types of gear pump:
Internal pump
It is used to pump thick fluid such as asphalt and adhesive and has a viscosity of 1 cPs to 1,000,000 cPs.

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Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 11: Schematic diagram of an internal gear pump Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 12: Internal gear pump
CITATION Int18 l 2057 (Internal Gear Pumps, 2018) (Barad, 2017)
Mechanism
When the liquid enters the suction port between the exterior and interior gear, it flows through the pump between the gears. The crescent seal divides the liquid and acts as a rotating shaft between the suction and the discharge port. When the pump head is flooded, then liquid flows out of the discharge port and the intermeshing gears of the idler and rotor form locked pocket to assure that the volume is controlled. Then the idler and rotor are connected completely to form a seal which is equidistant from the suction and discharge ports which the allow the fluid to flow out of the pump.

Advantages Disadvantages
Excellent for the use of high viscosity fluids. The speed of flow should be moderated.

Non-pulsating discharge. It has medium pressure limitations.

There is constant discharge of fluid. Overhung load on rotating shaft.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 5: CITATION Sud13 l 2057 (S.V.R, 2013) CITATION Sud13 l 2057 (S.V.R, 2013)Applications:
External pump
External gear pump is one which is used as lubricating pump in machine tools, fluid power transfer units and as oil pumps in engines and also it also uses two external spur gears. However, large capacity external pump uses helical or herring bone gears and operates at 640 rpm whereas the small capacity external pump operates between 1750 to 3450 rpm. This pump is used where there is the use of polymers, fuels, and chemical additives.

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Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 13: Schematic diagram of an external Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 14: External gear pump
gear pump CITATION Ind18 l 2057 (Industrial Hydraulics, 2018) CITATION And l 2057 (Vacca, 2018)Mechanism
The external pump consists of two identical rotating gears one is the drive gear and the other is the slave gear. When liquid flows into the pump, it is trapped with the rotating gears. The liquid then flows in the pockets found between the gears and the casing. As the gears rotate, they allow the liquid to flow out of the pump.

Advantages Disadvantages
The fluid flows at a high rate. No solids are allowed to pass through the pump.

No overhung bearings. It has four bushing in the liquid area.

It doesn’t make too much noise when it operates. It has fixed end clearances.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 6: CITATION Sud13 l 2057 (S.V.R, 2013) CITATION Sud13 l 2057 (S.V.R, 2013)Applications:
Peristaltic pump
Peristaltic pump is used for a variety of viscous fluids. In a peristaltic pump, the fluid flows through a flexible tube fitted inside a circle casing. This casing consists of a rotor attached to a number of rollers. However, peristaltic pump uses an alternating compression and relaxation system. CITATION Rin10 l 2057 (Raj, 2010)35718751117600005461000
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 15: Schematic diagram of a peristaltic pumps Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 16: Peristaltic pumps
CITATION Pum18 l 2057 (Pumps and Pumping Equipments, 2018) CITATION Col18 l 2057 (Cole-Parmer, 2018)
Mechanism
The pumps system in a peristaltic is known as peristalsis. The rollers are passed along a tube to creates a temporary seal between the suction and the discharge. When the fluid enters the tube, it is pushed away towards the outlet when the rollers attached to the central of the rotor rotates. The speed of rotation of the rollers controls the rate of flow of the fluid. If the speed of rotation increases, the rate of flow of the fluid increases also.
Advantages Disadvantages
It is cost effective. The tube should change often.

It is easy to maintain. The operator should have a good knowledge in peristaltic pumps.

It is easy to sterilize. Selection of tube is difficult.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 7: CITATION Rin10 l 2057 (Raj, 2010)Applications:
Case Study
This case study is about the type of pump used at my house.
As I have observed there is no pump connecting to the water pipes. However, there is an issue with the flow rate of the water. Since the house is a storey house and the water tank is on roof, it is difficult for the tank to fill quickly as the flow rate of the water is very low. Therefore, it will be easier if there would be a by connected to main water stream.

The recommended water pump is a pressure booster water pump. This is because a pressure booster water pump is connected directly to the main water stream of the house.

The pressure booster pump has a:
Pressure range between 80 to 315 Psi.

It can pull the fluid at a maximum length of 15 ft.

It can support water at a maximum temperature of 140°F.

Since it is a storey house, it is easier to use a pressure booster water pump since it the fluid can travail up to 15 ft at a high flow rate.

Reference
Castlepumps.com. (2018). Positive Displacement vs Centrifugal Pumps Guide – When to use which? | Castle Pumps. online Available at: https://www.castlepumps.com/info-hub/positive-displacement-vs-centrifugal-pumps Accessed 10 Sep. 2018
PUMPS.2018. PUMPS.ONLINEAvailableat: https://www.slideshare.net/tamanashpramanick/pumps-26818585. Accessed 15 August 2018
Ben Liu. 2018. Classification of pumps| All Pumps. ONLINE Available at: https://www.allpumps.com.au/blog/2016/01/25/classification-of-pumps/. Accessed 15 August 2018
Coulter, B. and Coulter, B. (2018). How Does a Submersible Water Well Pump Work?. online Skillings ; Sons, Inc. Available at: https://www.skillingsandsons.com/blog/how-does-a-submersible-water-well-pump-work Accessed 12 Sep. 2018
Pumpsolutions.com.au. (2018). How Submersible Pumps Work: Advantages and Disadvantages of Submersible Pumps – Pump Solutions Australasia. online Available at: https://pumpsolutions.com.au/how-submersible-pumps-work-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-submersible-pumps/ Accessed 12 Sep. 2018
Mge.com. (2018). Irrigation Pumps – Madison Gas and Electric – Madison, Wisconsin. online Availableat:https://www.mge.com/savingenergy/business/bea/article_detail.htm?nid=2654 Accessed 12 Sep. 2018
Mitchellewis.com. (2018). Booster Pumps | Mitchell Lewis ; Staver. online Available at: http://www.mitchellewis.com/products/booster-pumps Accessed 17 Sep. 2018.

HydroPump Company. (2018). Pressure Boosting Systems Help Correct Water Pressure Issues. online Available at: http://www.hydropump.net/pressure-boosting-systems-help-correct-water-pressure-issues/ Accessed 17 Sep. 2018.

Desmi.com. (2018). ESLH Centrifugal Pump | DESMI – Proven technology. online Available at: https://www.desmi.com/desmi-products/eslh-centrifugal-pump.aspx Accessed 17 Sep. 2018.

Pumpsolutions.com.au. (2018). How Centrifugal Pumps Work: Advantages and Disadvantages of Centrifugal Pumps – Pump Solutions Australasia. online Available at: https://pumpsolutions.com.au/how-centrifugal-pumps-work-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-centrifugal-pumps/ Accessed 17 Sep. 2018.

Mishra, P. (2017). Centrifugal Pump – Working Principle, Main Parts with Application – Mechanical Booster. online Mechanical Booster. Available at: http://www.mechanicalbooster.com/2017/07/centrifugal-pump.html Accessed 17 Sep. 2018.

 USA, K. (2014). 11 Tips for Electric Diaphragm Pump Selection. online THE PUMP POST. Available at: https://blog.knfusa.com/2014/09/26/11-tips-for-electric-diaphragm-pump-selection/ Accessed 21 Sep. 2018.

A. (n.d.). ARO DOUBLE DIAPHRAGM PUMP POLYPROPYLENE 1/2″. online Lamda-cs.com. Available at: https://www.lamda-cs.com/double-diaphragm-pumps/aro-double-diaphragm-pump-polypropylene-1-2.html Accessed 21 Sep. 2018.

Wastecorp.com. (2018). What is a Diaphragm Pump?. online Available at: https://wastecorp.com/ms-faqs Accessed 21 Sep. 2018.

Verder Liquids. (n.d.). Diaphragm Pumps. online Available at: https://www.verderliquids.com/int/en/pumps-by-principle/what-is-a-diaphragm-pump/ Accessed 22 Sep. 2018.

Mineral Processing & Metallurgy. 2018. Diaphragm Pump Working Principle. ONLINE Available at: https://www.911metallurgist.com/blog/diaphragm-pump-working-principle. Accessed 22 September 2018.

Andrea Vacca’s Research | Maha Fluid Power Research Center. 2018. Andrea Vacca’s Research | Maha Fluid Power Research Center. ONLINE Available at: https://engineering.purdue.edu/Maha_AVteam/Pump_Research.html. Accessed 23 September 2018.

Industrial Hydraulics. 2018. Industrial Hydraulics. ONLINE Available at: https://www.boschrexroth.com/ics/cat/?cat=Industrial-Hydraulics-Catalog&m=US&u=im&o=Desktop&p=g273187. Accessed 23 September 2018.

Gear pump. 2018. Gear pump. ONLINE Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/SudhirReddy/gear-pump. Accessed 23 September 2018.

Pumps and Pumping Equipments. 2018. Pumps and Pumping Equipments. ONLINE Available at: https://pumps-pumpingequipments.blogspot.com/2016/11/peristaltic-hose-rotodynamic-pumps.html. Accessed 23 September 2018.

Cole-Parmer High-Pressure Peristaltic Pump, Max Flow of 33.3 GPH, 30 PSI, 220 V, 50 Hz from Cole-Parmer Canada. 2018. Cole-Parmer High-Pressure Peristaltic Pump, Max Flow of 33.3 GPH, 30 PSI, 220 V, 50 Hz from Cole-Parmer Canada. ONLINE Available at: https://www.coleparmer.ca/i/cole-parmer-high-pressure-peristaltic-pump-max-flow-of-33-3-gph-30-psi-220-v-50-hz/7420326. Accessed 23 September 2018.

RinoRaj. 2010. Peristaltic pump by rinoraj. ONLINE Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/rinoraj/peristaltic-pump-by-rinoraj-3569171. Accessed 23 September 2018.

Verder Liquids. 2018. Explanation Of Peristaltic Pumps and How They Work | Verderliquids.com. ONLINE Available at: https://www.verderliquids.com/int/en/pumps-by-principle/how-do-peristaltic-pumps-work/working-principle-peristaltic-pumps/. Accessed 23 September 2018.