v PersonalEngineering ActivityCE 1.6Before initializing of this Project I studied distributionDevices which include Switches, Capacitors, Fuses, breakers and LightningArresters to enhance safety, reliability and the system power quality. Idesigned automation scheme which was incorporate fault detection, localization,isolation and restore the load. Before starting this project, I studied FDIRsystem’s component which was pad-mount switches, pole mounted recloser controlsand substation. In pole mounted controller, I used IEC 61131-3 programminglanguage which included sequential function chart, flowchart, function blockdiagram, ladder diagram, structured text and instruction list. I used FDIRalgorithm because it minimizes error occurred and it worked safely in thesystem.
I added another important algorithm which automatically checked theloading of equipment and thermal limits which determined that load can betransferred safely or not. CE 1.7For Selection Radio communication I consider primaryconsideration Security, remote configuration, Broadband or multiple channels,multiple protocols, a major supplier, cost.
In this project, I used new featureof the serial controller which was point-to-point protocol links. For transmittingdatagram, I used these methods which consist of HDLC, LCP and NCP components. Idesigned multiple network layer protocols by using PPP.I implement Distributionautomation scheme, the possible difference was used of midpoint’s type and tiepoint switches while both sources were different or same to each other. CE 1.8In this project, I faced the problem of a permanent Zone 1which was occurred between switch 1 and substation CB14.
To overcome thisproblem, I developed the Algorithm in which we initialized the logic. Afterrelaying locks out the substation breaker, I developed the algorithm whichcommunicates with field devices and the station protection relays to localizethe fault. I designed the algorithm which determines the fault betweensubstation and SW1. I implemented the algorithm which isolates the faultoccurred in incoming line from the substation.
From the Field Devices, I usedthe algorithm which gathered the pre-fault load of section downstream of SW1. Iimplemented the algorithm which was able to determine the capacity between thealternate source and alternate feeder. The final step was to closes the tie switches and back-feed load byrestoring customer on the un-faulted line. Another Problem I faced in thisproject was safety transfer because of too high load I discussed it with myteam member’s that it was difficult to accept the load from the faulted feeder.One more Problem I faced in this project was Volt/VAR Control (VCC). To stopthe major problem of reactive losses in the distribution system I presented thesolution that voltage regulator was deployed at the station and the feeder anda transformer LTC in the primary station transformer.CE 1.9I searched Distribution substation components which wereInclude Supply Line, Transformers, Busbars, Switchgear, out-coming feeders,switching apparatus, surge voltage protection and grounding.
In Transformer, Ifocused on their power rating, insulation, voltage rating, cooling, windingconnections and voltage regulation. I studied Metal-clad switchgear and theircharacteristics. I used different techniques in circuit breakers to distinguishthe arc which was Lengthening the arc, Intensive cooling, Division into partialarcs, Zero point quenching and in DC circuit capacitors were connected inparallel with contacts. I measured power supply quality by using parameterswhich were continuity of service, variation in the magnitude of voltage,Transient voltage and current, Harmonic content in the supply voltage.
CE 1.10In Substation Design Consideration, I ensured that workingenvironment was completely safe. I considered safe working condition in whichinterrupting device must be worked properly, energized conductors were eliminatedand protective barriers and interlocking were installed, Substation weredesigned in the circuit and equipment to accomplished the maintenance work, inelectric equipment, I installed some warning signs so that it was informedwhich equipment needed to eliminate and adequate grounding system wasinstalled, in case of sudden lighting emergency lights were provide, completeoperating and maintenance instruction were provided which consist of wiringdiagram, rating of equipment and the setting of protective devices. CE 1.11 I searched Substation standardization in which guides andrecommended practice were used extensively in communication requirement fordesign, installation operation and substation maintenance purposes.
In thisphase of the project, I noticed that for 3-wire 60 Hz range of voltage ratingwas low side equipment and NEMAC84.1 standardized just seven: 2,400 , 4,160 ,4,800 , 6,900 , 13,800 , 23,000 and 34,500V. Another difficult task Iaccomplished in this project was to locate distribution substations nearer tothe load center of its service area. It was sometimes prohibited due tophysical, electrical, neighboring and aesthetic considerations. I chooselow-cost designs so they were satisfied power supply needs which required high/lowvoltage and power capacity.CE 1.
12I designed smart grid in which I consider the following areaswhich were Low carbon, Grid performance, Grid enhanced applications, customer,cyber security and data privacy, communication and integration infrastructure.I studied demand response thoroughly than I installed the components whichconsist of DG prime mover and its power conversion, Interface or step-uptransformer, Grounding, Disconnect switches or switchgear, metering, control ordata logging equipment and for transfer trip and dispatched control system Ideveloped communication link between them. I used microprocessor protectiverelays which detects the disturbances in voltage and current.CE 1.
13In this project, I studied effect of DG integration effect onthe system then I understand following facts which were size and type of DGdesign, type of DG prime motor, interaction with DG and load, characteristicsof grid which were network and auto looped and radial, impedance of the systemat the connection point, types, location and setting equipment of voltagecontrol, plan for grounding, types, location and setting for protection. Whenevaluating the penetration level, I considered a number of factors whichinclude; it varies with location on the feeder, capacity of a substation andtheir peak load, fault current contribution of DG source and a percent ofutility source fault current.