v which was pad-mount switches, pole mounted recloser controls

v  Personal
Engineering Activity

CE  1.6

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Before initializing of this Project I studied distribution
Devices which include Switches, Capacitors, Fuses, breakers and Lightning
Arresters to enhance safety, reliability and the system power quality. I
designed automation scheme which was incorporate fault detection, localization,
isolation and restore the load. Before starting this project, I studied FDIR
system’s component which was pad-mount switches, pole mounted recloser controls
and substation. In pole mounted controller, I used IEC 61131-3 programming
language which included sequential function chart, flowchart, function block
diagram, ladder diagram, structured text and instruction list. I used FDIR
algorithm because it minimizes error occurred and it worked safely in the
system. I added another important algorithm which automatically checked the
loading of equipment and thermal limits which determined that load can be
transferred safely or not.

CE  1.7

For Selection Radio communication I consider primary
consideration Security, remote configuration, Broadband or multiple channels,
multiple protocols, a major supplier, cost. In this project, I used new feature
of the serial controller which was point-to-point protocol links. For transmitting
datagram, I used these methods which consist of HDLC, LCP and NCP components. I
designed multiple network layer protocols by using PPP.I implement Distribution
automation scheme, the possible difference was used of midpoint’s type and tie
point switches while both sources were different or same to each other.

CE 1.8

In this project, I faced the problem of a permanent Zone 1
which was occurred between switch 1 and substation CB14. To overcome this
problem, I developed the Algorithm in which we initialized the logic. After
relaying locks out the substation breaker, I developed the algorithm which
communicates with field devices and the station protection relays to localize
the fault. I designed the algorithm which determines the fault between
substation and SW1. I implemented the algorithm which isolates the fault
occurred in incoming line from the substation. From the Field Devices, I used
the algorithm which gathered the pre-fault load of section downstream of SW1. I
implemented the algorithm which was able to determine the capacity between the
alternate source and alternate feeder. 
The final step was to closes the tie switches and back-feed load by
restoring customer on the un-faulted line. Another Problem I faced in this
project was safety transfer because of too high load I discussed it with my
team member’s that it was difficult to accept the load from the faulted feeder.
One more Problem I faced in this project was Volt/VAR Control (VCC). To stop
the major problem of reactive losses in the distribution system I presented the
solution that voltage regulator was deployed at the station and the feeder and
a transformer LTC in the primary station transformer.

CE 1.9

I searched Distribution substation components which were
Include Supply Line, Transformers, Busbars, Switchgear, out-coming feeders,
switching apparatus, surge voltage protection and grounding. In Transformer, I
focused on their power rating, insulation, voltage rating, cooling, winding
connections and voltage regulation. I studied Metal-clad switchgear and their
characteristics. I used different techniques in circuit breakers to distinguish
the arc which was Lengthening the arc, Intensive cooling, Division into partial
arcs, Zero point quenching and in DC circuit capacitors were connected in
parallel with contacts. I measured power supply quality by using parameters
which were continuity of service, variation in the magnitude of voltage,
Transient voltage and current, Harmonic content in the supply voltage.

CE 1.10

In Substation Design Consideration, I ensured that working
environment was completely safe. I considered safe working condition in which
interrupting device must be worked properly, energized conductors were eliminated
and protective barriers and interlocking were installed, Substation were
designed in the circuit and equipment to accomplished the maintenance work, in
electric equipment, I installed some warning signs so that it was informed
which equipment needed to eliminate and adequate grounding system was
installed, in case of sudden lighting emergency lights were provide, complete
operating and maintenance instruction were provided which consist of wiring
diagram, rating of equipment and the setting of protective devices.

CE 1.11

I searched Substation standardization in which guides and
recommended practice were used extensively in communication requirement for
design, installation operation and substation maintenance purposes. In this
phase of the project, I noticed that for 3-wire 60 Hz range of voltage rating
was low side equipment and NEMAC84.1 standardized just seven: 2,400 , 4,160 ,
4,800 , 6,900 , 13,800 , 23,000 and 34,500V. Another difficult task I
accomplished in this project was to locate distribution substations nearer to
the load center of its service area. It was sometimes prohibited due to
physical, electrical, neighboring and aesthetic considerations. I choose
low-cost designs so they were satisfied power supply needs which required high/low
voltage and power capacity.

CE 1.12

I designed smart grid in which I consider the following areas
which were Low carbon, Grid performance, Grid enhanced applications, customer,
cyber security and data privacy, communication and integration infrastructure.
I studied demand response thoroughly than I installed the components which
consist of DG prime mover and its power conversion, Interface or step-up
transformer, Grounding, Disconnect switches or switchgear, metering, control or
data logging equipment and for transfer trip and dispatched control system I
developed communication link between them. I used microprocessor protective
relays which detects the disturbances in voltage and current.

CE 1.13

In this project, I studied effect of DG integration effect on
the system then I understand following facts which were size and type of DG
design, type of DG prime motor, interaction with DG and load, characteristics
of grid which were network and auto looped and radial, impedance of the system
at the connection point, types, location and setting equipment of voltage
control, plan for grounding, types, location and setting for protection. When
evaluating the penetration level, I considered a number of factors which
include; it varies with location on the feeder, capacity of a substation and
their peak load, fault current contribution of DG source and a percent of
utility source fault current.