ZAMBIAN OPEN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
STUDENT NAME: CHARITY NAMWINGA
PROGRAM: DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
COURE: TECHNOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT
COURSE CODE: DS10
YEAR: SECOND YEAR
LECTURER: MRS M. MULUNGA
DUE DATA: 27TH APRIL, 2018
ASSSIGNMENT NO: 2 (TWO)
PHONE NUMBER: 0979384569
ADDRESS: MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
This paper will first define the key words technology, police and technological policy. The word technology according to Meier (1989) looks at technology not only in terms of hardware of production. He noted that technology can be extended to all the ‘skill, knowledge and procedures for making, using and doing useful things’. Policy is guided principles of public affairs, or the legislature in its measure.
While technological policy according to my own understanding technological policy are those policies that the government puts in place to help and guide the nation to acquire scientific knowledge, skills and procedures that can promote the development of the country through industrialization and nurturing those capabilities and optimizing the applications of national goals and interest for better economy.
In other way I can say, technological polices are polices that the Zambian government has formulate to guide the nation on how to acquire information that can be useful in promoting skills and knowledge, or technological way of improving our economy and the development of our country. Zambian government did not pay much attention no promoting technology for the past years until recently when the government recognizing the importance of technology and how it can help in promoting the national economy and uplift the standard of living through industrialization which can only come with improvement of technology.
Since independence in 1964, Zambia followed and implemented various macro-economic and development strategies. Between 1960 and 1970 Zambia adopted an import substitution strategy for the development of its manufacturing sector in an effort to achieve a rapid industrialization process. The strategy enabled the country to produce a wide variety of consumer goods (ranging from food, textiles, furniture, alcoholic and nonalcoholic drink, etc) and assembled goods including motor vehicles, radios, etc. The policy of import substitution entailed transfer of technology and expertise from outside Zambia.
Despite massive investment in this sector, between 1970 and 1980, Zambia experienced stagnation in economic and industrial performance. Between 1980 and 1991 economic and industrial performance further deteriorated, followed by a devastating decline in social infrastructure, dwindling financial reserves, uncontrolled inflation, rising debt obligation and declining productivity and export capacity.
After recognizing the importance of technology, the government of Zambia formulates the ministry responsibly for science, technology and vocational to try and improve on technology and monitoring the performance and also to in back on research to see how the technology can improve our economy and develop our nation. The transformation of Zambian economy from a central state controlled to free market brought some beneficial results in some sector of economy and some negative results in other sectors, such as manufacturing industry, which faced stiff competition from improved goods and services. The government realized that the major contributing factors to the poor performance of the industries in our country have being the lack of application technology, which has led to the declining of productivity under global trade environment. Most African countries are still facing the some problem of meting international standards in terms of quality production of goods and services because of using the old way of doing things.
Since that time when the Republic of Zambia recognizes technology and put in place the right policies to promoting industrialization may sectors improved in terms of production of goods and services, for example in Agriculture sector there is tremendous improvement and production has gone up but less value addition because of luck of technological knowledge of production to many farmers especial small scale farmers who are in rule areas, if Zambia can inverts in agriculture technology by Provide a high quality appropriate and cost effect services to farmers, generating and adapting crop and livestock technologies, which increase agricultural productivity and diversity production. This includes the development of law cost sustainable farming systems for all major agro-ecological zones and farm sizes in Zambia through participation of both public and private sector in research activities. Strengthening demand driven adaptive research; multiplication and distribution of planting materials of major food security crops, strengthening research/extension/farmer linkages, Strengthening research capabilities and capacity for livestock research in diseases, husbandry practices, breeding and nutrition in order to address the livestock constraint of small-scale farmers, more industries could have being viable today.
Commercial farmers are using modern way of production especially in a global trade environment dominated by rapidly evolving new technologies and processes and governed by free market forces. On a macro-economic level, there has been lack of policies to respond to the new free market economic environment. Over the last twenty years, no significant investments in research and development have taken place in the development of new products and processes aimed at promoting competitiveness of both the public and private enterprises, despite 80% of the economy having been in the hands of the former Zambia Industrial and Mining Corporation (ZIMCO).
Zambia’s mining sector is largely based on copper, with smaller output of cobalt, nickel, gold, and others. Traditionally, the mining sector was characterized by underground mines in the Copperbelt. Since 2000, new mining and associated infrastructure investment has been targeted in the Northwest Province, which utilizes capital-intensive open cast mining techniques. As a result, the old Copperbelt is becoming less important in terms of revenues and output, even though it remains the largest source of employment.
The current environment of lower commodity prices has impacted more adversely on the old Copperbelt underground mines whose cost structure is more labour-intensive and dependent on a wider range of domestically and imported manufactured inputs. Conversely, the opencast mines costs are largely associated with imported earthmoving machinery, spare parts, and diesel fuel, which benefits from the fall in global oil prices. Rising domestic electricity costs and unstable supply in 2015 has impacted the smelting operations of both open cast and underground mines. It should be noted that the older, more vulnerable, and (currently) marginally profitable underground mines of the old Copperbelt offer greater potential for utilizing mining sector procurement expenditure to deepen domestic manufacturing (First Quantum Minerals 2015; Vendanta Resources 2015).
Zambian economy depended so much in copper which didn’t show many results in the economical performance of our country. The biggest reason why copper didn’t perform well in the economy its because of lack of advanced technology to process our copper in to finished goods which can be exported at the international market and sell at a good price and in retune contribute to the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and benefit the people through employment which could have created in copper industry processing. But that is not the case in our country, up to today we are still exporting row materials and earn anything from it and allowing the so called inverters to exploit us and earn more. All this is because of luck of technology which as a country we are still lucking behind. If only the government can inverts seriously in technology development many industries can come up and more employment can be created and poverty can be reduced. Promotion of industries can only be seen if technological policies are taken serious by the implementers and the government itself.
In the health sector we have seen a lot of improvement in terms of technology in service delivery even thou it is not enough to ensure that research priorities are geared to generating information intended to solve health and nutritional problems, to ensure research capabilities and capacities of institutions carrying out health research are strengthened. Relate the research programmes to the priority problems in the health sector.
Establish effective linkages between research institutions on one hand, and users on the other and establish an effective health data bank for research results and mechanisms for their utilization. All this can only be achieved through technology and research development.
Economic historians have reviewed the experience of resource-rich countries and concluded that technology, skills, knowledge, and policies are instrumental in the success of resource-based industrialization. Indeed, these factors have enabled the expansion of the natural resource sector, by improving resource discovery, resource extraction, and resource processing technologies and processes, as well as moved the countries into new industries related to the resource sector.
A major contributing factor to the poor performance of the industry has been the lack of application of science and technology, which has resulted in industries becoming uncompetitive with declining productivity under global trade environment.
In view of the above, the Government has realized that a sustainable socio-economic development can only be achieved through a strong well co-ordinate and monitored Technology System. Hence, the government decided to formulate a National Technology Policy to be in charge of technology promotion in the country.
These new products and processes demonstrate the power of technology and significant technological capabilities of scientists and engineers and the potential of such groups to contribute to economic and industrial development particularly in creating jobs for small scale farmers, transporters and manufacturers.
Unfortunately, very few of these products and processes have been successfully transferred for commercial exploitation. The lesson to learn is that Technology is not just to support research and development but more about fostering linkages between researches, manufacturing and marketing strategies through well co-ordinated institutional arrangements and promoting culture for realization of the benefits of Technology.
For Technology to be relevant and appreciated in Zambia, policies should focus on the development of the key sectors that contribute to national development and creation of wealth.
In view of the above, the Government of the Republic of Zambia has realized that a sustainable social-economic development can only be achieved through a strong, well co-ordinated and monitored Science and Technology System. Ensure the public sector research institutes conduct predominantly demand-driven and client-oriented research and development work. This should be driven by the needs of the key sectors and geared towards ensuring competitiveness, efficiency and innovation of commercial products. Ensure interaction with existing industries, especially small and medium scale ones to assist with process technology selection and product design. Strive to promote industrial private sector research and development especially in larger companies where it is cost effective. Create incentives in the form of tax allowances and rebates that will promote active participation in research and development by the public sector. Restructure and rationalize existing laboratories in the public sectors into autonomous research institutes under the auspices of the Technology Council. Establish a mechanism for access to technology in the public domain to take advantage of utilizing technologies which have not been patented and whose industrial property rights have expired. Establish a national Petty Patent System for locally developed intermediate technologies.
Provide up-to-date and efficient scientific information system involving libraries, documentation centre, computer systems etc as vital tools and components in strengthening the country’s capability to transfer technology and commercialize technological innovations. Develop research and training and capacity building in new and emerging technologies.
Technological policy are today more important than ever for Zambia, if it is to raise the standards of living of the people, consolidate a modern economy and participates as a significant partner in the global arena. This implies that the economy must be modernized and be competitive. In this regards, the Zambian government must heavy inverts in technology to promote industrialization in Zambia to contribute to economic and industrial development particularly in creating jobs for small scale farmers, transporters and manufacturers. Apart Zambia should set the Strategies for the policy by involve both Government and the private sector, working to complement each other, to ensure that Zambia provides and sharpens technical skills required in the promotion of competitiveness of the key sectors, and takes advantages of the vast natural resources potential for harnessing further the industrialization process, through, among others
National Science and Technology Policy (1996)
Animalu, A. O.E (2003). “Hot Issues in Contemporary Nigerian Science and Technology Policy.” A Paper Presented at the 16th Anniversary of the “Scientific Revival Day for Africa” organized by the African Technology Policy Studies (ATPS) Network, Abuja, Nigeria pg. 8-15.
Bamiro, O. A (2004). “Technology Transfer and the Development of National Technological Capacity: The Case of Nigeria Liquefied National Gas (LNG) Project”. A paper presented at ATPS/RMRDC Training Workshop on Science Writing for Science Writers, Abuja Nigeria pg.1-23.